How did Gold Utah Omaha Sword and Juno beaches get their code names?
Concerning Omaha and Utah, the beaches on which U.S. troops were landed, they were named after cities in the U.S.
There was a committee that was given the job if coming up with "code names" and "operational names". Many were chosen to be as unlike the actual operation as was possible. If, for instance, a operation was a maritime raid on the french coast, the code name would NOT be either about France or the navy. The code names were either one word such as "Rutter" or two parts such as "Market Garden". Things such as the first primitive RADAR sets were given a "cover name" so they would not be referred to by their actual name. Some of these were "OBOE" and "Unicorn". The preplanning for an operation would have a code name, and the operation would have a different code name. The training for the Dieppe raid was code named "Tiger" and the actual raid was "Rutter". The actual raid later was done under the code name or as you might call it "cover name" of Jubilee, but you can find out more about that everywhere on the net.
The code name for the Battle of Normandy in June of 1944 was Operation Overlord. The codes given to the different beaches were Utah, Omaha, Juno, Gold, and Sword. The Americans landed at the Utah and Omaha Beaches, while the British were assigned to the Sword and Gold Beaches. Canadian forces landed at Juno Beach.