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Lower division classes are broader "basic" courses commonly in the form of prerequisites for a major or minor. Passing these classes is typically required to be permitted to enroll into upper division classes, which are more specific to a major or minor.

For example, a Psychology 1 course at UC Berkeley is a lower division class that is required for majoring in Psychology, with its focus on the general basics of psychology. Passing Psychology 1 is required for enrollment into an upper division Psychology course such as Psychology 130 (Clinical Psychology), in which the material is much more focused and specific.
Lower division courses tend to be more introductory and broadly survey a subject. They give vocabulary, nomenclature, history, background and fundamentals.

Upper division courses will delve much deeper into specific and limited aspects of a subject. These courses will assume the student already has the vocabulary, nomenclature, history, and background to understand the course material. For this reason, most upper division courses will have a prerequisite of one or more related lower division courses.

Some subjects, such as mathematics, are building block in nature and success in upper division courses will require skills and knowledge acquired in lower division courses.

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Q: How do upper and lower division classes relate to your major and minor?
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What is an upper division class?

Lower-division classes are related to introductory courses, GEs (gen eds) and pre-requisites. Upper-division classes are major-related / major-specific classes. Lower division classes are usually geared for freshmen and sophomores and generallly consist of 100/200-level classes t( introductory material). Upper division courses are geared for juniors and seniors and are more specialized/harder (usually numbered 300+). People who are majoring in a subject must take a lot of upper division classes in their majors in order to obtain their degree. The also material builds so that you are expected to have a certain level of knowledge when you sign up for the course.


What is social stratification and what are the major causes?

Social stratification is the division of society into categories of rank in a hierarchy of classes (upper/middle/lower) based on criterion or a combination such as race, colour, religion, gender, age, etc.


What were three major problems brought about by urbanization?

One major problem due to urbanization is overpopulation. Another problem is that new social classes emerged which created a division of classes. The third major problem is the gradual decline in standard living.


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The division of society into social classes based on who does or does not own property.


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Explain how people from the lower classes can get ahead in this world?

People from lower classes need to find opportunities in the workplace or through education. They may have to work their way up in their field or borrow money and major in a high demand field.


How did roman policies encourage growth and trade?

The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.The Romans had several classes of citizenship and all of them had the right to trade. The citizens of the lower classes, which was a granted citizenship, not an inherited one, could legally do business in Rome and in the provinces. Trading colonies were established and some of them grew into major cities.


What is considered lower division credit upon transferring from a junior college to a university?

All of your courses taken at a JC is considered lower division (100s & 200s or As & Bs). However, you are considered a lower division transfer student if you have less than 60 semester units that are trasferrably... meaning you still have some GEs (lower division courses) that will need to be taken at the 4year level on top of the units required for your major. Upper division transfer students are those with more than 60 transferrably semester units and they have GE certification that their GEs are completed.. and they will only have to take the courses necessary for their major (upper division unitis). The major difference between the two is application process. Many universities are impacted at the Freshman Entry/Lower Division entry.. and it is much more difficult to get into those universities. They consider your high school transcript, JC transcript and your test scores. Upper division transfer applications only have their JC transcripts looked at. So if you didn't do so well in HS, being an UD is to your benefit. A junior college usually issues an Associates degree, which is typically 60 hours of credit. Of that, roughly 40 hours is "general education," and about 20 hours is major-specific. All "general education" is, by definition, "lower division" to a bachelors degree. And, sadly, so will most of the major-specific 20 hours also be considered "lower division" by most bachelors programs. It is, generally speaking, during the junior and senior year of a bachelors degree when "upper division" credits are earned. I don't think any Jr College can offer upper-level credit (that is what makes them "Jr"). I'm pretty sure that is the case. I know there were no upper level credits at my community college. At any rate, it's usually pretty easy to tell: Look at the course numbers. The first numbers of all the courses at a jr college will generally be a 1 or a 2 (for example, PSY 1240 or COMM 2113). In this system anything that begins with a 1 or a 2 is a lower level (freshman or sophmore) level course. Once you trasfer you will need to take upper division credits (typically begining with 3s and 4s). Master's level classes begin with 5s and on up. Good luck Lower division is freshmen and sophomore level classes. Upper division is junior and senior level classes. Most universities allow 60 - 68 hours to transfer in from a community college.


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What are elective classes?

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What does 5 E C relate to in sport?

Your Probably Reffering to SEC, the southeast conference in college football. Its a division 1 conference with an automatic BCS major Bowl bid.


What is the student to teacher ratio at uc Berkeley?

This will vary. There is no set number at all. Larger, more popular courses or classes that are required for your major (lower division prerequisites) will typically have 1 professor to 500 students. This was the case for my Chem 1A, Math 1B, Sociology 1, Biology 1B, and MCB61 classes. So the largest classes get are 500 students. Some classes are in between with about 250 students. Discussion with your GSI (Graduate student instructor) will be a 1 GSI: 10-20 students. At the same time, my Theater 52AC class consisted of only a 100 students or so so it really depends. When you enroll for classes, you can see what the maximum limit of students for each class is and make your decisions that way but for lower division courses, class sizes will be large. As you get into upper division classes this will change and classes will be smaller, allowing for greater discussion and student-teacher interaction. Due to these large class sizes it is a good idea to go to your professor's office hours and meet him/her at that time because there will be far fewer students.


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