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Answered 2013-07-25 05:24:46

I live in a apartment on the second floor there was Reconstruction to all the first floor condos some had to have all wall reconstruction more the three time and still are having issues. My question is can the second floor condos still be effected by this mold issues. The builder was responsible because the building were not properly install with the right materials to prevent leakage in the walls and building structure. I have done a mold test and it came back that Cladosporium is present in my house. I am now dealing with respiratory systems which have cause bronchitis plus draining blister sore in my nose that even taken meds the problem still remains, also my dogs are experiencing same breathing problem. I am a renter and feel the place is not safe to live in. Could I be right about this mold affecting my health as well as my dogs. I am not the only one dealing with this problem. Please help I am concern about all people concerned.

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How do you remove Cladosporium from an outdoor deck tile?

Cladosporium is a very irksome problem, but luckily, it is not too hard to solve! Cladosporium is a simply a type of mold and mildew, and can be removed with chemicals such as regular cleaning chemicals. It can be prevented by keeping your deck dry!

How does cladosporium affect meat?

Cladosporium is a fungus that forms black spots on meat. It is not known to cause foodborne illness, so it appears to be more of a spoilage microorganism.

What is an example fungi?

Stachybotrys chartarum, aspergillus, pennecillium, cladosporium

What is considered a high colony count in Cladosporium mold?


What has the author Gerardus Albertus de Vries written?

Gerardus Albertus de Vries has written: 'Contribution to the knowledge of the genus cladosporium Link ex Fr' -- subject(s): Cladosporium

What are examples of mold?

There is Aspergillus, Cladosporium Peniccillium, and if you dont like these examples screw you!

What has the author Huogen Lu written?

Huogen Lu has written: 'The oxidative burst in tomato plants induced by race specific elicitors of Cladosporium fulvum' 'Characterization of a suppressor of elicitor-induced necrosis from intercellular fluids of tomato leaves infected with Cladosporium fulvum'

What kind of fungus can corrode aluminum?

Cladosporium resinae and Stemphylium genus are fungi that are known to corrode aluminum.

What are some types of mold?

Common household: mucor, alternaria, penicillium, aspergilius, cladosporium. Toxic mold: stachbotrys, memnoneilla, acremonium

What has the author Rosario Vera Estrella written?

Rosario Vera Estrella has written: 'Effect of race specific elicitors and non-specific elicitors of Cladosporium fulvum on tomato cell suspension cultures'

I have toxic mold where i rent cladosporium pen asp group plus aspergillus Im having a hard time breathing The doctor put me on two inhalers Im moving out can this cause permanate damage to my lung?

hello did you ever get an answer to your question. I also have discovered I have cladosporium in my apartment and the apartment has a displeasant smell, I have suffered from medical symptoms over the years that sound alot like it could of been caused by exposure to mold. If you have received any answe to your question I would appreciate you passing along the info.

What has the author Guillermo Fuentes-Davila written?

Guillermo Fuentes-Davila has written: 'Studies on a leaf spot disease of spinach caused by Cladosporium variabile (Cooke) De Vries' -- subject(s): Spinach, Diseases and pests

How many different types of mold allergies are there?

I am unsure of the exact number of diffeent types of mold allergies but according to my research the most common molds that cause allergies include alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium and penicillium. There are several articles on the internet that discuss mold allergies.This link tells a lot about the mold allergies.

What are some kinds of mold?

Here are some types of mold.Household molds: The most common is cladosporium, which is also called black mold. There are many kinds of cladosporium even though they all look similar. Part of the fungi family, penicillium is used to make penicillin. It's the "fuzzy" kind of mold. Aspergillus is most common in houses with a lot of humidity, usually from a leaky roof or something similar. This kind of mold that can cause serious respiratory problems. Alternaria is commonly accepted as a major cause for asthma because the mold attaches itself to dust particles that we inhale. Mucor is your typical "bread mold." It can affect all types of food. If you see mold on your food, it is probably this type of mold. It is very invasive.Toxic molds: Stachybotrys was recently identified in the 30's as a major threat to human and animal health. It very commonly affected construction workers, or anybody who worked in/on home renovation, school building, ect. It causes an array of health concerns. Memnoniella resembles the stachybotrys, fungal-type of mold. It can cause allergic symptoms, and can even penetrate the lining of human lungs. The acremonium type of mold is potentially toxic and very dangerous. It can cause meningitis and a variety of other serious health problems.

Role of rhizosphere microflora in environment microbiology?

The term "Rhizosphere" was introduced in 1904 by the German scientist L. Hiltner to denote the region of soil, which is under the influence of plant roots.Rhizosphere is defined as the region of the soil immediately surrounding the roots of a plant together with the root surfaces.Plant roots receive between 30-60% of the net photosynthesized carbon. Of this, an estimated 40-90% enters the soil as a wide variety of materials including alcohols, ethylene, sugars, amino acids and organic acids, vitamins, nucleotides, polysaccharides, and enzymes. These materials create a unique environment for soil microorganisms, called the rhizosphere. The plant root surface, termed rhizoplane, also provides a unique environment for microorganisms, as these gaseous, soluble, and particulate materials move from the plant plant to soil.The rhizosphere effect is beneficial to the plants in two ways, firstly it helps in providing nutrients to the plants and secondly, it helps the plants in combating root diseases;Here, soil environment may be aerobic or anaerobic. And here Bacteria predominate rather than fungi.Mainly soil bacteria present:Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Clostridium etc.Fungi such as: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Cladosporium herburum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. solani.Rhizosphere microorganisms are directly associate with root system, i.e, no vector is needed.- Tathagata Bhattacharjee.student of M.Sc -1st year,B.R.S.N College,West Bengal State University.

Symptoms of cat nip allergy in feline?

Albert - Orange Tabby, 7-8 yrs old My cat has always enjoyed catnip. He recently got over his second bout of pancreatitis. A few days later, he started a really bad cough which so far, we can only attribute to a bronchial infection (vet and myself). He also has been asthmatic AND has allergies to some moulds (cladosporium) which is high in the late fall. Recently he has started throwing extremely bad allergic fits (licking, scratching, head shaking, running from one end of the house to the other, jumping up and lying on anything smooth. He normally does this with an allergic reaction, but not this bad. Normally, there is catnip on their (him and his sister Alices') climbing toy so it was always out. Last night, after playing with a catnip mouse in bed, before sleep (his normal ritual) he threw one of the worst fits I've ever seen, including yowling, up and down stairs (which exhausts him with his laboured breathing). It scared the bejesus out of me. He was up all night, but stayed on his pillow and would not touch the carpet. In the morning, I put some more catnip out for them on their climbing toy after vacuuming it. About 15 minutes later, he had another fit. I'm not sure if it's a combination of the flovent and catnip, the allergy pills and catnip, his anti-biotic and catnip or what (the poor little guy is on so many meds right now), but he hasn't even had much itching since I took it away. Perhaps he just developed an allergy to it due to the situation he's in. Sorry for the long winded response. hope it helps. I am on anonymous, my email is kyle_hagerman at hot mail dot com.

Were does a fungi spore grow?

Fungi spores grow on moist surfaces. Some fungi require lots of moisture on a growth surface, other requires less moisture, but they all require moisture. Most homes are not moist enough for mold and that is why most homes are not over run by mold growth. Molds that require lots of moisture are known as hydrophilic fungi. Chaetomium Fusarium, and Stachybotrys are just three hydrophilic fungi. Other require moderate amounts of moisture, these are known as mesophilic fungi, Many common species of Penicilliumm Aspergillius, and Cladosporium fit into thig group. Others require only the moisture found in humid environment and do not even require a leak. These are known as xerophilic fungi. Moisture from the humid air enters surfaces, and these xerophilic humidity loving molds grows on these surfaces. Penicillium chrysogenum seems to be mesophylic at times and grows around leaks, often it will act more xerophilic and grow in humid environments. Fungi do not require warmth as many people like to report, If you do not believe me go dig through the vegetable crisper of your cold refrigerator and you will likely find some moldy food sooner or later. Molds require suitable temperatures some where above freezing and below very high intolerable temperatures will do just fine. They also require food, but when you are a fungal spore a speck of dust or grain of dirt on a otherwise inorganic nutrient poor surface may be all the food you will need. In summary fungi require moisture, this is what is lacking and what needs to be added for spores to grow into mold.

Got Mold?

There are many different types of household mold, maybe you have noticed some of these types growing in various areas around your home. Some are more hazardous than others. Mold can most easily be identified by its color and where you find it growing. Cladosporium is a common household mold. It can be green, brown, grey or black, and is mostly only associated with allergic reactions. It can be found on wood, walls, or insulation. Stachybotrys is what is referred to as "black mold", clearly nicknamed for the color it appears on household surfaces. It is considered the most toxic mold. It grows in very damp areas and has been associated with many health hazards. Aspergillus is another mold found to be common in households and can be black, grey, yellow, white, green, or brown in color. People with weaker immune systems should be cautious of this type of mold because it can more easily cause infection in these individuals. In some instances it can create toxins, while other times it may only cause allergies. This type of mold can be readily found on clothing, paper products, walls, and other places within your home. Penicillium is a species of mold that present-day antibiotics were discovered from. This type of mold can be found on moist foods, or perhaps on your walls. It is usually white, green, or blue colored. These are just a few types of mold you may have come in contact with - presently there are about 400,000 different species of mold known to man. Any surface you find that has mold growing in your home should be decontaminated immediately after detection to ensure the safety of your health. Not only can mold damage your body, but it can also damage your home. It is also important to not only get rid of the mold, but to fix the source of the dampness that is causing the mold to grow.

How is mold helpful to the ecosystem?

Some mold saves lives; others kill. Some add to the flavor of cheese and wine; others make food poisonous. Mold belong to the Fungi kingdom, which boats over 100, 000 species, including mildews, mushrooms, plants rusts and yeasts. Only about 100 fungeses are known to cause disease in humans and animals. Many others play a vital role in the food chain-decomposing dead organic matter and thereby recycling essential elements in a form that plants can use. Still others work in symbiotic relationships with plants, helping them to absorb nutrients from the soil. And some are parasites. But the story is not all bad because mold has some very useful properties. In 1928 green mold, identified as Penicillium notatum proved to be lethal to bacteria but harmless to humans and animals. This led to the development of penicilin, termed the single greatest lifesaver of modern medicine. Since then mold has furnished a number of other medicinal substances, including drugs for treating blood clots, migraine headaches and Parkinson's disease. Mold has been a blessing to the palate. For example, Brie, Camembert, Danish blue, Gorgonzola, Roquefort and Stilton owe their distinct flavors to certain species of the mold Penicillium. Likewise salami, soy sauce and beer owe much to mold. The same is true of wine. The mold Botrytis cinerea or "noble rot" acts on the sugar in grapes, enhancing the flavor. The mold Cladosporium cellare adds a final touch during the maturing process. (info from 1/06 Awake on Jehovah's Witnesses official website)

What are different types of mold called?

How does mold grow?Mold seeks MOISTURE, WARMTH, and FOOD, and all three conditions are necessary for it to grow. Mold is most likely to find a place to grow in a bathroom, basement or kitchen, but it can grow in other rooms if conditions are favorable. The climate where you live and the living habits in your household can affect the ability of mold to grow. Mold spores can thrive and reproduce in wet or damp parts of your home: areas that have had flooding or where leakage has occurred in roofs, pipes, or walls, or areas around house plants, especially ones that sometimes are over-watered. In just 48 hours, a moist environment combined with room-temperature conditions and an organic food source can lead to mold growth.Some places where mold can grow in your home are: * carpet * drapes * upholstery * leather * wood products * clothing * paper * cardboard * books * rags * wallboard * cloth * ceiling tiles * ductwork * paint * wallpaper * household dustAfter it gets the food it needs, mold can move to virtually any kind of surface. Mold prefers temperatures between 40 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. If a warm enough area in your home is humid or damp and contains items that mold likes to eat, your home could develop a mold problem.Should I be concerned with MOLD?Possibly. Everyone is exposed to some mold daily, and it is common to find mold spores inside the structure. Mold is found in areas of high moisture and may become airborne in your area. Mold can produce serious health effects through inflammation, allergy or infection. Symptoms of a mold problem often include black or odd colored splotches on organic material such as rotting lumber, drywall, bathroom tiles, shower curtains and produce a foul odor.COMMON MOLD RELATED AILMENTSDo you or your family suffer from any of the following health issues? * Persistent colds * Chronic headaches * Flu-like problems * Eye, nose, throat irritation * Bloody noses * Sinus congestion * Breathing problems * Achy joints * Persistent fatigue * Persistent coughSICK BUILDING SYNDROME * Musty smells in your home? * Visible mold or growths on walls, ceilings or floors? * Water leaks from plumbing, roofing or other sources? * Humidity over 50% in parts of your home?Types of Molds & FungiAbsidia (Zygomycetes)A common contaminant isolated from soil, air, stored grains, foods, and the indoor environment. Reported to be allergenic and a rare cause of human infection called zygomycosis.Acremonium (Hyphomycetes)Naturally found in soils, decaying organic matter, and plant debris. Can be found in food and the indoor environment. Acremonium is a common allergen, can produce a trichothecene mycotoxin, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).Agrocybe (Basidiomycetes)Medium to large mushrooms growing in grassy areas, on wood mulch, and pine needles. Some species are edible.Alternaria (Hyphomycetes)A common saprobe found on decaying wood, decaying plants, food, soil, and outdoor air. Some species are plant pathogens. Indoors, it can be found in house dust, carpet, damp areas around showers and window frames, and anywhere condensation occurs. Because of its abundance and ubiquity, Alternaria is one of the most important fungal allergens and is recognized as the chief fungal cause of hay fever. Infection is extremely rare.Arthrinium (Hyphomycetes)A cosmopolitan fungus isolated from plant debris and soil. Often isolated from air near grassy places, but rarely found indoors. Not reported to cause human or animal infection.Arnium (Ascomycetes)Most commonly isolated from dung. Not generally associated with human disease and is most often considered benign.AscomycetesConstitutes the largest class of fungi characterized by the production of sexual spores in structures called asci. This includes plant pathogens, saprobes, and decomposers. With a few exceptions, most Ascomycetes do not grow in buildings and are seldom agents of wood rot. Ascomycetes are the perfect stages of molds like Aspergillus and Penicillium. At high levels, Ascomycetes spores may cause allergies.Since most Ascomycetes are plant pathogens, ascospores are common during the growing season of plants and rare during winter, such as those of the Ascomycetes genera: Daldinia, Hypoxylon, Paraphaeosphaeria, Phaeosphaeria, and Leptosphaeria.AscosporesSexual spores produced by Ascomycetes.Aspergillus (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Emericella (Ascomycetes), Eurotium (Ascomycetes)Found in soil, compost piles, decaying vegetation, stored grain, and other kinds of organic matter. Can be found indoors in water-damaged buildings. A few species can cause aspergillosis in humans with compromised or defective immune systems. Most people are naturally immune to this infection of the lung. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common cause of aspergillosis, followed by A. flavus and A. niger. Some species are able to produce mycotoxins, depending on the strain, substrate, and/or food source. Others species are used in the manufacture of food, such as A. oryzae or A. soyae for soy sauce.Aureobasidium (Hyphomycetes)A common saprobe frequently isolated from soil, plant surfaces, seeds, grains, fruits and other food, human skin, and nails. Common indoors in humid areas such as bathrooms, kitchens, poorly maintained HVAC systems, and window frames. Allergies to Aureobasidium are common but infections are rarely reported.BasidiomycetesA class of fungi characterized by spores formed on basidia. Includes the mushrooms, toadstools, boletes, wood bracket fungi, and puffballs. Some species are edible, such as Agaricus bisporus, the commercially cultivated mushroom. A few species cause wood brown rot, white rot, and dry rot in buildings.BasidiosporesSexual spores produced by Basidiomycetes.Beauveria (Hyphomycetes)Found in plant debris and soil. Some species are well known parasites of insects. It is also isolated from food materials and indoor environments.Bipolaris (Hyphomycetes)A common saprobe and plant pathogen frequently isolated from plant debris and soil. It is also a common cause of leaf spot on golf course turf. A few species are capable of causing disease in humans.Botrytis (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Sclerotinia (Ascomycetes)Most species are important plant pathogens, such as B. cinerea, which can cause gray mold disease on various plant parts. Can be found in food and indoor environment, particularly on plants, fruits, and vegetables.Cercospora (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: MycosphaerellaceaeWidespread plant pathogens that cause leaf spot on many plants.Chaetomium (Ascomycetes)A common fungus in soils, dung, decaying organic matter, seeds, and wood or other cellulose-containing materials. Can be found indoors in water-damaged buildings on sheet rock, wallpaper, and other paper products. It is a common cause of food spoilage. Some species are allergenic but rarely cause human infections.ChromelosporiumTeleomorph: Peziza (Ascomycetes)Chrysonilia (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Neurospora (Ascomycetes)This genus is widespread; being found in food and indoors. Chrysonilia sitophila is popularly referred to as the red bread mold that occurs on breads, baked goods, meat, and fruits.Chrysosporium (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Various AscomycetesA common soil saprobe occasionally isolated from human or animal skin and nail. Chrysosporium inops is xerophilic and occurs in food.Cladosporium (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Mycosphaerella (Ascomycetes)Widely distributed as plant pathogens and saprobes. It is the most frequently found fungus in outdoor air. Indoors, it usually occurs at low concentrations in damp or humid areas, but may be found in high concentrations in water-damaged building materials. Its ability to sporulate heavily and to get airborne makes it an important fungal allergen. Frequently isolated as a contaminant in foods. Only occasionally associated with disease in humans; one species can cause chronic subcutaneous infection.CoelomycetesAn artificial class of fungi characterized by asexual spores that are produced within a cavity lined by fungal tissue or fungal and host tissues. Most are saprobes or pathogens on plants, fungi, and lichens.Coprinus (Basidiomycetes)These mushrooms are popularly referred to as the inky caps because their gills dissolve into a black inky fluid at maturity. Found on wood, dung, humus, and soil. Some species are edible.Curvularia (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Cochliobolus (Ascomycetes)A common saprobe found in soil, plants, cereals, and cellulosic materials such as paper and archives. Some species are plant pathogens but can also occur indoors. It is allergenic and may cause infections in immunocompromised people.Dicyma (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Ascotricha (Ascomycetes)DoratomycesA saprobe commonly found on decaying plant materials, straw, dung, wood, and in soil. It produces dark, sooty colonies. It has the ability to penetrate cellophane and to decompose cellulose. Doratomyces stemonitis is suspected to be the causal agent of "speck rot" on potatoes.Dreschlera (Hyphomycetes)Mostly plant pathogens that cause leaf spot, seedling blight, leaf stripe, or net blotch.Emericella (Ascomycetes)Anamorph: Aspergillus (Hyphomycetes)Usually found in soil, potatoes, grain, citrus, and stored seeds. Can be found in food and the indoor environment. Emericella nidulans can produce a sterigmatocystin mycotoxin and can be pathogenic to man and animals.Epicoccum (Hyphomycetes)A cosmopolitan saprobe isolated from air, soil, grain, seeds, textiles, paper products, and food materials. Can be a plant pathogen, and is a common cause of leaf spots of various plants. Can be found in indoor environments, where it can grow under conditions of low humidity. It is a known allergen, and is occasionally isolated from human skin and sputum.Eurotium (Ascomycetes)Anamorph: Aspergillus (Hyphomycetes)Can be found in stored food, fruit juices, grains, nuts, milled rice, spices, meat products, and peas. Also commonly occurs in indoor environments. Eurotium herbariorum may cause keratitis and indigestion in man.Exophiala (Hyphomycetes)Widely distributed as a saprobe in soil, water, on plants and decaying wood. It is an occasional contaminant of feet and nails. Exophiala infections have also been reported in animals, including fish.Fusarium (Hyphomycetes)Soil-borne fungi containing many plant pathogens that cause root rot, stem rot, fruit rot, and vascular wilt. Common on commodities, such as rice, bean, soybean, and other crops. Some species are important mycotoxin producers, and others notably F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. moniliforme, are recognized as opportunistic pathogens of man and animals.Ganoderma (Basidiomycetes)Large, very hard, woody bracket fungi that grow on living and dead trees. Some species are common on oaks, chestnuts, and conifers such as hemlock, spruce, and pine. Many species are being investigated for possible medicinal uses.Geotrichum (Ascomycetes Yeast)Teleomorph Dipodascus, Galactomyces (Ascomycetes)Commonly found in soil, water, air, decaying leaves, rotting paper, and textiles. Involved in spoilage of food like bakery products, dairy products, juices, fruits, and vegetables. Can be found in indoor environments with some species producing strong odors.HyphomycetesA group of fungi in which asexual spores called conidia are produced from special conidiogenous cells.Helvella (Ascomycetes)A saddle-shaped fruiting body of a fungus found on soil, or sometimes on rotting wood.Occasionally found growing on soil under houses.Memnoniella (Hyphomycetes)Mainly isolated from soils and dead plant material in tropical countries but has also been isolated from indoor sources such as paper, wallpaper, and textiles. Exposure to this genus should be avoided as they can produce griseofulvins, a potentially toxic metabolite. Emerging research has proposed that Memnoniella species actually belong to Stachybotrys.Monodictys (Hyphomycetes)Found on dead wood, stem, tree bark, damp linoleum, and paper. Isolated from soil and air.MyxomycetesPopularly called slime molds. These are not true fungi taxonomically. Some species are found in the soil, in decaying wood, or other organic matter, where they produce structures full of powdery resting spores.Mucor (Zygomycetes)Often found in soil, plants, hay, stored seeds, and manure. They can be found indoors in house dust, HVAC system dust, and poorly maintained carpets. They are rapid growers and can contaminate many kinds of stored food, including fruits and vegetables. A few species have been recovered from well-documented cases of zygomycosis. In general, infections due to members of this genus are rare.Nigrospora (Hyphomycetes)Some species are common on plants, particularly in the tropics. Occasionally isolated from soil, air, and foodstuffs.Paecilomyces (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Byssochlamys (Ascomycetes)A common saprobe found on dead plants and compost. Some species are insect parasites while others cause food spoilage. It is rarely a human pathogen but can cause infection in animals. However, some species, such as P. variotii, P. marquandii and P. lilacinus are emerging as causative agents of disease in immunocompromised individuals.Penicillium (Hyphomycetes)Many species are common contaminants on a variety of substrates. May be found indoors in air samples, carpet dust, or on wallpaper. Some species are able to produce mycotoxins. Human pathogenic species are rare, only limited to P. marneffei, which causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Some species are used for commercial production, such as P. chrysogenum for the antibiotic penicillin, P. griseofulvum for the antibiotic griseofulvin, and P. roquefortii for blue cheese.Periconia (Hyphomycetes)A widespread fungus commonly found on various substrates, including stalks of grasses, herbaceous stems, dead leaves, or leaf spots. The spores of Periconia species are often indistinguishable from the spores of smut fungi like Ustilago species, when collected on air cassettes. Both genera can have spores that are brown, verruculose, or echinulate, ranging from 10-16 microns in diameter.Peziza (Ascomycetes)Anamorph: ChromelosporiumPopularly referred to as cup fungi. They vary in size and color, but are mostly shades of ocher or brown to gray-violet. Most species are commonly found on old straw, compost, peat, leaf litter, rotting wood, damp soil, and other moist substrates. Can be found indoors in wet basements and wet carpets.Phialophora (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: AscomycetesOccurs in nature as a soft rot fungus on wood often causing a distinct blue stain. Can cause diseases in immunocompromised individuals.Phoma (Coelomycete)Found in soil and plant materials as saprobes. Will grow on a variety of materials such as butter, paint, cement, and rubber. Occasionally pathogenic to plants and humans, but infection from this fungus is extremely rare.Pithomyces (Hyphomycetes)This genus is common in soil and on dead or decaying plant materials. Requires high moisture level for spore germination. Can potentially produce cyclodepsipeptides, sporidesmolides, and sporidesmin.Rhinocladiella (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Capronia (Ascomycetes)Rhizopus (Zygomycete)Frequently isolated from soil and agricultural products, such as cereals and vegetables. Can cause infection in immunocompromised, malnourished or severely burned people.Rhodotorula (Yeast)A reddish yeast frequently isolated from air, soil, water, fruit juice, dairy products, and other substrates. Typically found as a saprobe in moist environments indoor such as carpeting, cooling coils, water tanks, humidifiers, and drain pans. Reported to be allergenic. Has been found to colonize terminally ill patients.RustsObligate parasitic fungi, which belong to Teliomycetes - Uredinales that cause plant diseases.Scopulariopsis (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Microascus (Ascomycetes)Mainly soil-borne, but also frequently isolated from wood, grain, fruit, paper, and food such as meat and dairy products. Also isolated from indoor environments. Most species can liberate arsenic gaseous compounds that can lead to arsenic poisoning. Has recently been associated with invasive human infections.Scytalidium (Hyphomycetes)Isolated from wood and soil.Serpula (Basidiomycete)Wood-attacking fungi. Serpula lacrymans is popularly referred to as the dry rot fungus or house fungus.Smuts (Teliomycetes)Obligate parasites and pathogens of plants that cause smut on various plant parts such as Silene anthers, corn kernels, onion bulbs, and rice grains.Sordaria (Ascomycetes)Common on dung. One species, S. fimicola is fairly common and is found on other substrates besides dung.Sporobolomyces (Yeast)Can be commonly detected in air samples. Frequently encountered indoors in water tanks, humidifiers, drain pans, etc.Sporoschisma (Hyphomycetes)Found on rotten wood and dead stems.Sporothrix (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Ophiostoma (Ascomycetes)Isolated from soil, live or dead plants, and peat moss. S. schenckii is an agent of human sporotrichosis, cutaneous infection, and ocular mycosis, usually in immunocompromised people.Sporotrichum (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Phanerochaete (Basidiomycetes)Can get airborne and be inhaled where it can form giant cells in the lungs.Stachybotrys (Hyphomycetes)A common saprophyte found on many substrates like grains, decaying plant materials, textiles, and tobacco. Grows indoors on water-damaged cellulose rich materials, such as sheet rock, paper, ceiling tiles, insulation backing, gypsum board, and wallpaper. The presence of this fungus can be significant due to its ability to produce mycotoxins under certain environmental conditions. Exposure to the toxins can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin exposure.It is possible that Stachybotrys may play a role in the development of sick building syndrome, but probably only in conjunction with other factors. Until more information is available on the health risks of environmental exposure to Stachybotrys, caution should be taken when dealing with this fungus.Stemphylium (Hyphomycetes)A common saprobe typically is found on dead plants and wood. It has been also isolated from air, paper, and cellulosic materials.Syncephalastrum (Zygomycete)Often isolated from soil and dung in tropical and subtropical regions. Can also be a persistent laboratory contaminant.Taeniolella (Hyphomycetes)Common on dead branches, wood, and senescent leaves. Was isolated from human cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions.Tetraploa (Hyphomycetes)Teleomorph: Massarina (Ascomycetes)Found on stems and leaf bases of many plants. Tetraploa aristata has been reported to cause keratitis.Thermomyces (Hyphomycetes)A thermophilic fungus that grows rapidly at 40° C.Torula (Hyphomycetes)Cosmopolitan fungi commonly found on wood, leaves, plant roots, and plant litter. Has also been isolated from air and soil. Some species cause stains in hardwoods.Trichoderma (Hyphomycetes)Very common especially in soil and decaying wood, dead leaves, fallen timber, compost heaps, and activated sludge. Can be found indoors in water-damaged buildings. Has occasionally been associated with disease in immunocompromised individuals.Trichophyton (Hyphomycetes)Some species are dermatophytes (growing on the skin) of humans or animals.Tritirachium (Hyphomycetes)A saprobe commonly isolated from decaying plant materials. Easily gets airborne. Can cause corneal ulcers.Ulocladium (Hyphomycetes)Found as a saprobe in soil, plant materials, rotten wood, paper, textiles and cellulose materials. Frequently collected in air and dust samples. Can grow indoors on water-damaged building materials. Has not been associated with disease in humans but can be very allergenic.Verticillium (Hyphomycetes)Mostly soilborne, root-inhabiting fungi that cause vascular wilt and other diseases on plants. Some species also infect mushrooms, rusts, and other fungi, as well as nematodes, ticks, mites and other insects. Other species can attack wool and textiles, or can decompose paper.Wallemia (Hyphomycetes)A very xerophilic fungus that has been isolated from soil, air, hay, textiles, and food such as jam, salted fish, and milk products. Can cause allergies.YeastA growth form exhibited by some fungi in which the fungus exists as single budding cells.ZygomycetesA class of fungi where the asexual spores are mostly formed endogenously in sporangia. The majority of the species are saprobes. DefinitionsAllergen/allergenicAn allergen is an antigen, principally a protein, which can elicit symptoms of allergic disease in a previously sensitized individual. This antigen is specifically recognized by the individual's immune system, with subsequent development of specific antibody and/or cell mediated immunity. Fungi can elicit an allergic reaction ranging from mild to severe, anywhere from a stuffy nose, through hay fever and asthma to pneumonitis. In most cases, the physical condition of the host, the amount of allergen the host is exposed to (spores, fungal hyphae, dust, pollen, etc.) and the degree of sensitization of the individual determines the severity of the reaction. In general, common environmental or indoor air contaminating fungi most often affect humans as irritants that elicit an immune response that we generally associate with allergies (hypersensitivity).AnamorphThe imperfect stage or asexual state of the fungus produced by mitosis.ColonyAn individual fungal growth on an agar culture plate or natural/manufactured substrate, when the fungus has grown sufficiently to be readily seen with a hand lens or low-power microscope.Conidia (conidium, singular)Asexual non-motile spores.ConidiophoreThe specialized hypha or cell on which conidia are produced.Hyphae (singular hypha)The individual filament or thread that make up a fungus.Hyphal FragmentA portion of the fungal mycelium that does not have any spores or other diagnostic fungal structures, and therefore, could not be identified.ImmunocompromisedIncapable of developing a normal immune response, usually as a result of disease (lupus, HIV), malnutrition, or immunosuppressive therapy (chemotherapy, corticosteroids).MycotoxinSecondary metabolites produced by fungi, which are toxic to human and animals in small quantities. Production of a specific mycotoxin tends to be genus-, species-, or even strain-specific.ParasiteAn organism that requires a living host to survive. It lives in or on the host and derives nutrients or other substances from the host. It is generally not able to live saprophytically, and it may often cause extensive damage to the host.PathogenAn organism that can cause a disease on another living organism.SaprobeA fungus that feeds by external digestion of dead organic matter, and usually has the ability to adapt rapidly on the substrate.SporeAn individual reproductive body or propagule of fungi, similar to a seed of plant.Spore-producing structuresFungal parts involved in spore production such as hyphae, conidiophores, phialides, and fruiting bodies, among others.TeleomorphThe perfect stage or sexual state of the fungus involved in producing meiotic or sexual spores.XerophilicAble to grow under dry conditions.