Happy bat mitzva and happy birthday and mostly MAZAL TOV !
Bar mitzva/Bat mitzva, both in Israel and elsewhere. Note that the Jewish youngster becomes bar/bat mitzva (Torah-responsible) whether or not a celebration or ceremony is held.
There's no tradition about Bat Mitzva dresses, and as a matter of fact, Bat Mitzva is only a few decades old so there aren't many traditions anyway.However, many congregations might find a skirt or dress that is above knee height, inappropriate without having to do with a Bat Mitzva. This is something of a social norm, and can change from one society/congregation to another.
For English, the question answers itself.In Hebrew, you'd call it a Bat-Mitzvah meshutefet.
A Bat Mitzva marks the transition from child to adult in Judaism. It's the time when girls become responsible for their own actions; doing Mitzvot and not doing sins. Until age 12 it's the parents obligation to educate them. A Bat Mitzva party is a recent invention for those people who don't realize the religious significance of the occasion. Once you remove religion from a Bat Mitzva celebration then it becomes a party and you can invite anybody you like - just keep in mind that a Bat Mitzva is a religious date marking a girls obligation to start keeping the 613 Mitzvot.
It's her Bat Mitzva ceremony.
Bar mitzva for boys is at the age of 13. Bat mitzva, for girls, it at 12. The reason is probably the average age of maturity, which is higher for boys.
"Bat" means daughter in Hebrew so...daughter of the mitzvot or commandments. So Bar Mitzva will mean son of the commandments.
close friend = $100 friend/classmate $30-$50
A Bat/ Bar Mitzvah is when a Jewish girl or boy becomes an adult. You sort of become a Rabbi for a weekend. You have to lead a service and read from the Torah. It's a lot of work! But you do get a big celebration later. Girls can have one at 12 or 13 but boys have to wait until 13. An added bonus are the gifts people give you.
Orthodox girls do have bat mitzvah celebrations at age 12. Bar mitzvah is at age 13.
It isn't directly linked. Rather, the Bar Mitzva ceremony marks the entrance to Jewish adulthood and full responsibility according to the Torah. The Torah itself is (and contains) the Jewish covenant. See also:More about the covenantMore about Bar Mitzva