How far away from earth does the farthest known star in the universe lie?
The farthest known star in the universe is probably in the distance galaxy Abell 1835 IR1916, which lies some 13.2 billion light years from earth. This galaxy is believed to be the most distant galaxy in the universe. A link is provided.
It is hard to say. The farthest stars are in other galaxies, but they are so numerous that we generally don't bother to name or number them, so there is no catalogue of them. There are many galaxies that we can detect but they are too far away to make out the individual stars, even though we know they are there.
Ah, you must be from Australia, because the Earth is farthest away from the Sun about on July 2nd each year, which is right after the beginning of the southern hemisphere winter. All orbits are ellipses. Earth's orbit is almost but not quite a circle; the eccentricity, or 'difference between this ellipse and a circle" is only about 3%. Earth is closest to the Sun at perihelion, around January 4 each year, and farthest away…
What is the farthest away from the planet Earth the sun the moon the planet Mars or the night stars?
do you mean when the Earth is farthest away from the Sun? If so, then this occurs at an event called 'aphelion,' when a body is the farthest from its star in its orbit. Recently this has been and will be happening on July 4th. (Note--distance from the Sun has nothing to do with seasons. That is because of our axial tilt.)
They don't (a whole lot) study stars for that purpose, as a typical star's life is much less than the life of the universe. They study galaxies. The oldest appearing galaxies also tend to be those farthest away, as measured by red shift. Farthest away of all are the quasars, which are still not fully understood.
Neptune, the farthest planet away from earth in our solar system is 4.3 billion kilometers from earth. The planet OGLE-05-390L b orbits a star about 6000 parsecs... about 20000 light years from earth. They're finding planets around other stars almost weekly... So that may change. The farthest (galaxy) we know of is a quasar whose light has been traveling for 12 billion years. That object is now about 27 billion light years from us. Since…