How is a camera made?
The lens is made of glass and plastic (or groups of glass elements) and focuses light passing through it on film to reproduce an image. The diaphragm is an opening or aperture that controls the amount of light entering the camera from the lens and so limits the film's exposure to light.
The first camera was made by Alhazen, it was made around 1000AD! It was a Pinhole camera. He was born in Basra, Iraq ***This was not a camera in the modern sense. It did not produce photographic images of any sort as the application of silver salts for imaging was not discovered until around the 17th century. It was not until appx. 1826 that the first permanent image was made.
The first camera that could record an image on its own was made by Joseph Nicephore Niepce. He used a device called a "camera obscura" which was like a camera but where the film goes, was a sheet of very thin paper you were supposed to trace the scene onto. Niepce took a plate of metal, coated it with asphalt and exposed it in his camera for 8 hours.