.PLFL LDA V \ Set (T P) = V * V JSR SQUA2 \ = V^2 STA T LDA K2 \ Set (R Q) = K^2 - V^2 SEC \ SBC P \ First calculating the low bytes STA Q LDA K2+1 \ And then doing the high bytes SBC T STA R STY Y1 \ Store Y in Y1, so we can restore it after the call to \ LL5 JSR LL5 \ Set Q = SQRT(R Q) \ = SQRT(K^2 - V^2) \ \ So Q contains the half-width of the new sun's line at \ height V from the sun's centre - in other words, it \ contains the half-width of the sun's line on the \ current pixel row Y LDY Y1 \ Restore Y from Y1 JSR DORND \ Set A and X to random numbers AND CNT \ Reduce A to a random number in the range 0 to CNT, \ where CNT is the fringe size of the new sun CLC \ Set A = A + Q ADC Q \ \ So A now contains the half-width of the sun on row \ V, plus a random variation based on the fringe size BCC PLF44 \ If the above addition did not overflow, skip the \ following instruction LDA #255 \ The above overflowed, so set the value of A to 255 \ So A contains the half-width of the new sun on pixel \ line Y, changed by a random amount within the size of \ the sun's fringe .PLF44 LDX LSO,Y \ Set X to the line heap value for the old sun's line \ at row Y STA LSO,Y \ Store the half-width of the new row Y line in the line \ heap BEQ PLF11 \ If X = 0 then there was no sun line on pixel row Y, so \ jump to PLF11 LDA SUNX \ Set YY(1 0) = SUNX(1 0), the x-coordinate of the STA YY \ vertical centre axis of the old sun that's currently LDA SUNX+1 \ on-screen STA YY+1 TXA \ Transfer the line heap value for the old sun's line \ from X into A JSR EDGES \ Call EDGES to calculate X1 and X2 for the horizontal \ line centred on YY(1 0) and with half-width A, i.e. \ the line for the old sun LDA X1 \ Store X1 and X2, the ends of the line for the old sun, STA XX \ in XX and XX+1 LDA X2 STA XX+1 LDA K3 \ Set YY(1 0) = K3(1 0), the x-coordinate of the centre STA YY \ of the new sun LDA K3+1 STA YY+1 LDA LSO,Y \ Fetch the half-width of the new row Y line from the \ line heap (which we stored above) JSR EDGES \ Call EDGES to calculate X1 and X2 for the horizontal \ line centred on YY(1 0) and with half-width A, i.e. \ the line for the new sun BCS PLF23 \ If the C flag is set, the new line doesn't fit on the \ screen, so jump to PLF23 to just draw the old line \ without drawing the new one \ At this point the old line is from XX to XX+1 and the \ new line is from X1 to X2, and both fit on-screen. We \ now want to remove the old line and draw the new one. \ We could do this by simply drawing the old one then \ drawing the new one, but instead Elite does this by \ drawing first from X1 to XX and then from X2 to XX+1, \ which you can see in action by looking at all the \ permutations below of the four points on the line and \ imagining what happens if you draw from X1 to XX and \ X2 to XX+1 using EOR logic. The six possible \ permutations are as follows, along with the result of \ drawing X1 to XX and then X2 to XX+1: \ \ X1 X2 XX____XX+1 -> +__+ + + \ \ X1 XX____X2____XX+1 -> +__+__+ + \ \ X1 XX____XX+1 X2 -> +__+__+__+ \ \ XX____X1____XX+1 X2 -> + +__+__+ \ \ XX____XX+1 X1 X2 -> + + +__+ \ \ XX____X1____X2____XX+1 -> + +__+ + \ \ They all end up with a line between X1 and X2, which \ is what we want. There's probably a mathematical proof \ of why this works somewhere, but the above is probably \ easier to follow. \ \ We can draw from X1 to XX and X2 to XX+1 by swapping \ XX and X2 and drawing from X1 to X2, and then drawing \ from XX to XX+1, so let's do this now LDA X2 \ Swap XX and X2 LDX XX STX X2 STA XX JSR HLOIN \ Draw a horizontal line from (X1, Y1) to (X2, Y1) .PLF23 \ If we jump here from the BCS above when there is no \ new line this will just draw the old line LDA XX \ Set X1 = XX STA X1 LDA XX+1 \ Set X2 = XX+1 STA X2 .PLF16 JSR HLOIN \ Draw a horizontal line from (X1, Y1) to (X2, Y1) .PLF6 DEY \ Decrement the line number in Y to move to the line \ above BEQ PLF8 \ If we have reached the top of the screen, jump to PLF8 \ as we are done drawing (the top line of the screen is \ the border, so we don't draw there) LDA V+1 \ If V+1 is non-zero then we are doing the top half of BNE PLF10 \ the new sun, so jump down to PLF10 to increment V and \ decrease the width of the line we draw DEC V \ Decrement V, the height of the sun that we use to work \ out the width, so this makes the line get wider, as we \ move up towards the sun's centre BNE PLFL \ If V is non-zero, jump back up to PLFL to do the next \ screen line up DEC V+1 \ Otherwise V is 0 and we have reached the centre of the \ sun, so decrement V+1 to -1 so we start incrementing V \ each time, thus doing the top half of the new sun .PLFLS JMP PLFL \ Jump back up to PLFL to do the next screen line up .PLF11 \ If we get here then there is no old sun line on this \ line, so we can just draw the new sun's line. The new LDX K3 \ Set YY(1 0) = K3(1 0), the x-coordinate of the centre STX YY \ of the new sun's line LDX K3+1 STX YY+1 JSR EDGES \ Call EDGES to calculate X1 and X2 for the horizontal \ line centred on YY(1 0) and with half-width A, i.e. \ the line for the new sun BCC PLF16 \ If the line is on-screen, jump up to PLF16 to draw the \ line and loop round for the next line up LDA #0 \ The line is not on-screen, so set the line heap for STA LSO,Y \ line Y to 0, which means there is no sun line here BEQ PLF6 \ Jump up to PLF6 to loop round for the next line up \ (this BEQ is effectively a JMP as A is always zero) .PLF10 LDX V \ Increment V, the height of the sun that we use to work INX \ out the width, so this makes the line get narrower, as STX V \ we move up and away from the sun's centre CPX K \ If V <= the radius of the sun, we still have lines to BCC PLFLS \ draw, so jump up to PLFL (via PLFLS) to do the next BEQ PLFLS \ screen line upName: SUN (Part 3 of 4) [Show more] Type: Subroutine Category: Drawing suns Summary: Draw the sun: Continue to move up the screen, drawing the new sun Deep dive: Drawing the sunContext: See this subroutine in context in the source code References: No direct references to this subroutine in this source file

This part draws the new sun. By the time we get to this point, the following variables should have been set up by parts 1 and 2: V As we draw lines for the new sun, V contains the vertical distance between the line we're drawing and the centre of the new sun. As we draw lines and move up the screen, we either decrement (bottom half) or increment (top half) this value. See the deep dive on "Drawing the sun" to see a diagram that shows V in action V+1 This determines which half of the new sun we are drawing as we work our way up the screen, line by line: * 0 means we are drawing the bottom half, so the lines get wider as we work our way up towards the centre, at which point we will move into the top half, and V+1 will switch to &FF * &FF means we are drawing the top half, so the lines get smaller as we work our way up, away from the centre TGT The maximum y-coordinate of the new sun on-screen (i.e. the screen y-coordinate of the bottom row of the new sun) CNT The fringe size of the new sun K2(1 0) The new sun's radius squared, i.e. K^2 Y The y-coordinate of the bottom row of the new sun

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Subroutine DORND (category: Utility routines)

Generate random numbers

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Subroutine EDGES (category: Drawing lines)

Draw a horizontal line given a centre and a half-width

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Subroutine HLOIN (category: Drawing lines)

Draw a horizontal line from (X1, Y1) to (X2, Y1)

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Subroutine LL5 (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate Q = SQRT(R Q)

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Label PLF10 is local to this routine

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Label PLF11 is local to this routine

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Label PLF16 is local to this routine

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Label PLF23 is local to this routine

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Label PLF44 is local to this routine

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Label PLF6 is local to this routine

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Label PLF8 in subroutine SUN (Part 4 of 4)

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Label PLFL is local to this routine

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Label PLFLS is local to this routine

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Subroutine SQUA2 (category: Maths (Arithmetic))

Calculate (A P) = A * A