In statistics what is the fundamental assumption?
You may be referring to the Central Limit Theorem.
The Central Limit Theorem states that if you draw a large enough random sample from any population with a finite variance, the distribution of that sample will be approximately Normal (i.e. it will follow a Gaussian, or classic "Bell Shaped" pattern).
Which one of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory?
An important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory is Earth's surface area that has been essentially constant over time. The modern day Red Sea is explained by plate tectonics theory because it is a rift zone that may eventually open into a major ocean if Arabia and Africa continue to separate.
In statistics if a condition occurs to more than 10 percent of the population is this considered abnormal?
Statistics is a general field of numeric quantities and what they represent. For example, a statistic may be inferential or descriptive. Inferential statistics are special kinds of statistics that use sampling distributions to make inferences from a sample to a population of interest (hopefully that the sample represents). The inferences are more or less valid based on how well one meets the assumptions of a statistical method/model and how robust a statistical method is with…