Asked in Uncategorized
Is dose of 310 M REM IS equivalent to a typical dose of environmental source of ionizing radiation?
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Asked in Science
What would you need to protect yourself from beta radiation?
Asked in Health, Electromagnetic Radiation
Does a person exposed to radiation has no chance of survival?
Well, you are exposed to radiation every day and you survive... so the answer is NO. The radiation you are exposed to comes from many sources: sun, cosmic rays, medical imaging equipment, the ground, the air, your own body, etc. What is important with radiation (or anything else potentially toxic) is the total dosage received. With ionizing radiation this is usually measured in either REM (Roentgen Equivalent Man) or Sievert. 1 Sievert = 100 REM. The relative toxicity is measured statistically as the same dose does not have the same effect on different people, it is usually measured as LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of those receiving it). For ionizing radiation the LD50 is somewhere between 300 REM and 400 REM depending on the source you consult. This is a very high dose, the typical dose a person receives per year from all sources is about 0.1 REM so it would take at least 3000 years of normal exposure to approach LD50. For ionizing radiation the level where death is certain is somewhere around 10000 REM, at which the brain dies within minutes of exposure. At lower levels, even when death occurs the person can typically live weeks to months with reasonable medical care. Some other values of LD50: water, >90g/kg ethanol, 7g/kg arsenic metal, 0.76g/kg aspirin, 0.2g/kg nicotine, ~0.05g/kg nerve gasses, a few micrograms/kg botox, estimated 1 nanogram/kg
Asked in Science
What type of an electromagnetic wave has the shortest wavelength?
Asked in Electromagnetic Radiation
Where is the microwaves radiation located on the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to other kinds of radiation?
Asked in Radioactive Decay
What type of radioactive decay is used in smoke detectors?
Most smoke detectors which operate alarms contain an artificially produced radioisotope: americium-241 in the form of americium dioxide. Americium-241 is made in nuclear reactors, and is a decay product of plutonium-241. It emits mostly alpha particles and relatively little harmful gamma radiation. The amount of americium in a typical new smoke detector is 1 microcurie or about 0.29 micrograms. The smoke detector works by using the americium as a source of ionizing radiation to ionize the air in an ionization chamber between two electrodes. The slightly ionized air allows a small current to be conducted between the two electrodes. When smoke enters the chamber, it absorbs some of the ionizing radiation, reducing or eliminating the current and triggering the alarm.
Asked in Environmental Issues
What is the order of this list of events to show a typical story of migration and human environmental interaction?
Asked in Food & Cooking, Clothing, Education
What is a typical day for a 9 year old in Germany?
Asked in Chemistry
Radiation of heat is larger in black surface or white surface?
Absorbtivity is a measure of the ability to absorb radiation. The absorbtivity of a typical black painted surface is .96-.99. Typical white painted surface ~ .3 - .33. Solar radiation is usually considered to be around 420 Btu/hr-ft^2. Emmisivity, or the ability of a black body to radiate or re-radiate in some cases, is highly dependent on many variables. Try re-asking the question.
Asked in Travel & Places
What are the categories of tourism according to purpose of travel?
Asked in Physics
What is the typical wavelength of infrared radiation?
There isn't a correct answer to this as it is relative to the object you are observing. Infra-red radiation is typically understood to be light ranging from 700nm through to around 1mm. Items such as the Sun emit radiation across the visible and infra-red spectrum. Humans typically radiate heat at the range of around 10 microns.
Asked in Marie Curie
Did Marie Curie die from cancer?
Why manager need to study environment management?
An environmental manager is responsible for overseeing the environmental performance of private, public and voluntary sector organisations. They also develop, implement and monitor environmental strategies, policies and programmes that promote sustainable development. Environmental managers examine corporate activities to establish where improvements can be made and ensure compliance with environmental legislation across the organisation. Environmental managers have a wide remit and will review the whole operation, carrying out environmental audits and assessments, identifying and resolving environmental problems and acting as agents of change. An important element of the role is to ensure staff are trained at all levels and that the workforce recognises their own contributions to improved environmental performance. Typical work activities Environmental managers have an extremely varied workload, which usually entails working at a corporate and strategic level to identify significant environmental effects. Typical work activities include: developing and implementing environmental strategies and action plans that ensure corporate sustainable development; taking the lead on sustainable procurement for all goods and services; coordinating all aspects of pollution control, waste management, recycling, environmental health, conservation and renewable energy; leading the implementation of environmental policies and practices; ensuring compliance with environmental legislation; auditing, analysing and reporting environmental performance to internal and external clients and regulatory bodies; carrying out impact assessments to identify, assess and reduce an organisation's environmental risks and financial costs; promoting and raising awareness, at all levels of an organisation, of the impact of emerging environmental issues, whether legislative or best practice, on corporate, ethical and social responsibility; managing the development and implementation of an environmental management system; coordinating public hearings and consultations on environmental matters; managing relations with the board of directors, senior management and internal staff; training staff at all levels in environmental issues and responsibilities; participating in environmental education and research; negotiating environmental service agreements and managing associated costs and revenues; writing environmental reports, assuming the lead responsibility with the company; leading on corporate social responsibility issues and action.
Asked in Astronomy, Planetary Science, Stars
What a star's diameter and radiation?
Asked in Similarities Between
What is the relationship between sievert and becquerel?
These units measure different things. Becquerel is a measure of radioactivity in a radioactive material, it tells how many events occur in given material in a second. Sievert is a measure of absorbed ionizing radiation with compensation regarding biological effect. 123456 Becquerel happens inside the radioactive material, and it says 123456 events occur per second in the measured item. 0.129 Sievert happens inside a biological entity (you) and says the radiation absorbed by your body will have a biological effect that is eqivalent to absorbing 0.129 joule of beta radiation per kilogram of body. Also it might be worth noting that becquerel is a very small unit, Sievert is a huge one. For example, natural potassium (40K) in a typical human body produces 4,000 disintegrations per second, 4 kBq of activity. The Fukushima workers radiation dose limitation was raised to 1/4 Sievert. At that much radiation the company can hope that no one will die of radiation poisoning. Any workers receiving that dose will likely suffer from an increased risk of cancer. How much of an increase is difficult to say.
Asked in Medical Technologies, X-Ray
How much radiation is used in a shoulder x-ray?
The scientific unit of measurement for a dose of radiation, which is also called an effective dose, is the millisievert (mSv). This is also at times measured in rads, rems, roentgens and sieverts. For an X-ray of a limb, the typical effective dose is 0.001 mSv. This is a comparatively small dose, and often talked about in relation to how much natural radiation from the earth to which it compares. In this case, it is equal to the natural background radiation you would get in less than one day.