Is it possible for a volcano to change the earth's climate?
Yes. The sulfur emissions from a large, explosive eruption can trigger a global reduction in temperatures for several years.
How do sediments deposited in the ocean basins record the history of Earths climate and climate change?
fossils tell about the earths climate. there are fossil trees and fossil experts(such as me) can study them and they tell us about the earths climate millions of years ago. the climate back then was warm and tropical,like a rainforest.the fossil trees also tell us there age. we can find out by counting the rings.
meteoralogy is the study of short term weather. like if its going to rain tomorrow or not. but climatology is the study of the earths climate in years to come. they can predict what will happen years from now, what animals/plants will survive and how the earths climate will change the face of the earth. hope this helps.