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To determine a star's luminosity is from size and temperature.
The sun does not determine the shadow, the object that stops its light does.
model limitations: · You are unable to determine the size of the planets · You are unable to measure the length between each planet · You can not determine the speed which the planet is rotating at · You can not determine the speed that the planet is travelling around the sun · You are unable to determine the direction that the planet is turning · You are unable to determine the direction the planet is going around the sun · You can not measure the axis that the planet is leaning on
The color of a star does not directly determine its age. Red stars are large and a little less hot then the Sun. Scientists can use the color of a star to determine its heat and then using that and its mass determine how old it is.
Hugo Christiaan Hamaker has written: 'Reflectivity and emissivity of tungsten, with a description of a new method to determine the total reflectivity of any surface in a simple and accurate way ..' -- subject(s): Reflection (Optics), Tungsten
Any graph can be used to determine something!
By determining the individual slopes, and comparing.
You could weigh it. You can also determine its density by comparing it to an equal volume of water, but first you would have to determine how much water it displaces to determine its volume.
By comparing the behavior to the current statutes for the area.
Answer this question… Comparing the conclusion with several other sources
From NOAA website:http://weather.noaa.gov/radar/radinfo/radinfo.htmlBase ReflectivityThis is a display of echo intensity (reflectivity) measured in dBZ (decibels of Z, where Z represents the energy reflected back to the radar). "Reflectivity" is the amount of transmitted power returned to the radar receiver. Base Reflectivity images are available at several different elevation angles (tilts) of the antenna and are used to detect precipitation, evaluate storm structure, locate atmospheric boundaries and determine hail potential.The base reflectivity image currently available on this website is from the lowest "tilt" angle (0.5Â°). This means the radar's antenna is tilted 0.5Â° above the horizon.The maximum range of the "short range" (S Rng) base reflectivity product is 124 nm (about 143 miles) from the radar location. This view will not display echoes that are more distant than 124 nm, even though precipitation may be occurring at greater distances. To determine if precipitation is occurring at greater distances, select the "long range" (L Rng) view (out to 248 nm/286 mi), select an adjacent radar, or link to the National Reflectivity Mosaic.Composite ReflectivityThis display is of maximum echo intensity (reflectivity) from any elevation angle at every range from the radar. This product is used to reveal the highest reflectivity in all echoes. When compared with Base Reflectivity, the Composite Reflectivity can reveal important storm structure features and intensity trends of storms.The maximum range of the "long range" (L Rng) composite reflectivity product is 248 nm (about 286 miles) from the radar location. The "blocky" appearance of this product is due to its lower spatial resolution on a 2.2 * 2.2 nm grid. It has one-fourth the resolution of the Base Reflectivity and one-half the resolution of the Precipitation products.Although the Composite Reflectivity product is able to display maximum echo intensities 248 nm from the radar, the beam of the radar at this distance is at a very high altitude in the atmosphere. Thus, only the most intense convective storms and tropical systems will be detected at the longer distances.Because of this fact, special care must be taken interpreting this product. While the radar image may not indicate precipitation it's quite possible that the radar beam is overshooting precipitation at lower levels, especially at greater distances. To determine if precipitation is occurring at greater distances link to an adjacent radar or link to the National Reflectivity Mosaic.For a higher resolution (1.1 * 1.1 nm grid) composite reflectivity image, select the short range (S Rng) view. The image is less "blocky" as compared to the long range image. However, the maximum range is reduced to 124 nm (about 143 miles) from the radar location.
The factors include, Reflectivity of the area, Topography, Climate, Cloud cover, Vegetation, and Latitude.
There is no way to determine an exact number for just in our Solar System, let alone all of space. The number keeps changing as they collide with each other either breaking off smaller asteroids or fusing together forming larger asteroids, or collide with planets or the sun and are destroyed. We can't see them around other stars, but there are inevitably some.
by comparing them with each other to see wich ones have common ancestors
To the extent to which the energy is absorbed, yes. Reflectivity and color determine how much energy is absorbed, but no matter can reflect 100% of the energy striking it. Some will be absorbed by the molecules.