Is the phrase 'end-product' hyphenated?
If you're using "after-school" as an adjective (e.g. I participate in an after-school program -- after-school is describing the kind of program I participate in), then it is hyphenated. If you're using "after school" as an adverb-noun phrase (e.g. Meet me after school -- after school tells when to meet me), then it is not hyphenated.
No -- not when it is being used as a noun phrase by itself. ("She was at the bottom of the chain of command.") However, you would hyphenated it if this noun phrase was being used to modify a noun that came after it: "The ship was plagued by chain-of-command issues." "The comapny had to clarify its chain-of-command policy."
Only when it's being used as an adjective. If one says "These requests will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis," there should be hyphenation. However, if the phrase is used as a noun or an adverb, it will not have hyphenation, like so: "We will review these requests case by case." Basically, if it's modifying, or affecting the meaning of, a noun, it should be hyphenated. If it's affecting a verb (in the second case…