# What are statistical procedures?

Any of a very large number of tests and comparisons that can be
made with data to determine the likelihood that outcomes from
various treatments or conditions **did not happen by chance
alone.** The degree to which you can be confident that your
results differ from chance is the degree to which you can be
confident that the applied treatment is responsible for the
results. These treatments or conditions could involve studies of
the effectiveness of medications, school performance, biology and
physical science research, psychological and social/psychological
research... In effect any treatment where you can set up a
controlled experiment to obtain measurable results, and where you
can compare your results against a properly constructed random
model of the same parameters.

Some procedures:

Correlation coefficients

t-tests

Analysis of Variance (with many variations)

Regression

I would broaden this answer. The above definition is limited to
**inferential** statistical procedures, specifically those that
endorse a process of null hypothesis significance testing. ANYTHING
that deals with data could be considered a statistical procedure
(this includes collecting, graphing, describing, and reporting
data, in addition to making inferences, testing for effects and
estimating effect sizes -- such as the correlation example given
above). (Additionally, there are even more variants to regression
than there are to ANOVA.) Although the earlier definition properly
captures the most traditional aspects of statistical procedures as
applied to psychology.