What are the 20 rules of subject-verb agreement?
1. Subjects and verbs must have the same number. Thus, a singular subject requires a singular verb form, and a plural subject requires a plural verb form.
The girl plays the clarinet. The dogs bark. The juggling of family obligations and career responsibilities makes college difficult for many students.
2. Don't let words that come between the subject and verb affect agreement.
The various types of drama were not discussed. Jerome, who hit the two homeruns last night, is the best player.
The price of those shoes is too high.
3. Don't be confused when certain prepositions occur between the subject and verb (e.g., along with, as well as, besides, in addition to, including, together with).
The coach, along with the players, protests the decision. The biology teacher, in addition to some parents, is taking the bus to the science museum with the class. The accountant as well as his office manager is attending the conference in Seattle.
4. In sentences beginning with "there" or "here," the subject will follow the verb. Take care to identify the subject before deciding which verb form to use. Remember "there" and "here" can never be subjects.
There is an abundance of azaleas in the back garden this spring. Here are the keys to your car.
5. In a question, where the usual subject-verb word order is not followed, be careful to find the subject before deciding which verb form to use.
Was the bus on time? Do mother and dad really want to renew their marriage vows this spring?
Is there a purpose to this assignment? Does James always work so efficiently? Where are my shoes? Are Jim and his sister at home? Was Mary planning to enter the competition?
6. Subjects joined by "and" usually take a plural verb.
The cook and the waitresses are asking for a raise. My sister and her children were swimming all afternoon.
a. If the two subjects refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular.
The owner and manager of the 7-Eleven on the corner was robbed last night. Sue's friend and advisor was surprised by her decision. Macaroni and cheese is my favorite Friday night dinner. Peanut butter and jelly was always my son's favorite sandwich. Spaghetti and meatballs is the specialty of the house in this Italian restaurant. Strawberries and cream was added to the menu.
b. If words like each, every, many a, or no come before the subject, the verb is singular:
Every boy and girl at the party was given a present to take home. Each envelope and piece of paper has the name of the company on it. Each dog and each cat has been immunized. No talking and no laughing is permitted in the library.
7. Subjects joined by or, nor, either/or, neither/nor, and not only/but also are handled in the following manner:
a. If the subjects are both singular, the verb is singular.
Julie or Tisha is responsible for baking the birthday cake. Neither the doll nor the tea set is too expensive.
b. If the subjects are plural, the verb is plural.
Roses or geraniums are going to be planted under the picture window in the front yard. Neither the students nor the teachers were impressed by his comments.
c. If one subject is singular and one plural, the verb is matched with the nearer subject:
Neither Daniel nor his brothers plan to go deep-sea fishing this morning. Neither his brothers nor Daniel plans to go deep-sea fishing this morning. Does Joe or his friends want some pizza? Do your sisters or Joe want some pizza?
**Good shortcut--for rule #7 above, just look at the subject closest to the verb. If the subject is singular, choose the singular form of the verb; if the subject is plural, choose the plural form of the verb.
8. An infinitive used as a subject of a sentence takes the singular form of the verb. However, two infinitives joined by "and" take the plural form of the verb.
To be a good husband was Jim's ambition. In basketball, to dribble well and to shoot accurately require practice.
9. A gerund that is used as the subject of a sentence takes the singular form of the verb. (Gerunds are "ing" words that function as nouns, not verbs.) However, two gerunds linked by "and" take the plural form of the verb.
Saddling the wild horse was no easy task for the cowboy. Tuning the engine on this old car requires patience.
Preparing a resume and interviewing with prospective employers are two important steps in the job-hunting process. Collecting antique jewelry and playing the banjo are my hobbies.
**But be careful: Note the following two sentences. In each of these, there is no gerund acting as the subject.
Perching in the moonlight on the tall tree branch was an old owl. ("owl" [subject] was perching [verb])
Running down the street were two police officers. ("officers" [subject] were running [verb])
10. In general, use a singular verb with collective nouns regarded as a unit. (Examples of common collective nouns are audience, jury, herd, senate, public, council, crowd, family, class, board, assembly, committee, panel, orchestra, group.)
The team plays well after a good night's sleep. (team refers to the whole group)
The jury has been deliberating for two days. (jury refers to the whole group)
Exception: Use the plural form of the verb if the collective noun refers to individuals in a group.
The majority of the students were studying in the computer lab. (majority refers to many individual students)
Note this special rule: The phrase "the number" is treated as singular; "a number" is treated as plural.
The number of employees has decreased this year. (number regarded as a unit)
A number of employees are being fired this year. (number refers to many individual employees)
11. Some nouns that end in "s" are singular in meaning and take singular verbs (e.g., news, civics, measles, diabetes, AIDS, gymnastics, aerobics, electronics, statistics, ethics, physics, and politics). Also, titles of books, movies, short stories, newspaper and magazine articles, poems, and plays may be plural in form but are considered singular in number. The names of some businesses, geographical entities, and words referred to as words are treated similarly.
Statistics is not being offered this semester. The Birds is one of Alfred Hitchcock's most well-known thrillers.
The Wings of the Dove, a complex novel by Henry James, was recently shown on network television.
Finkle Brothers has a sale this week. The Philippines has a tropical climate. "Homo sapiens' is often misspelled.
12. Indefinite pronouns like each, either, neither, one, no one, nothing, nobody, anyone, anything, anybody, everyone, everything, everybody, someone, something, and somebody usually take singular verbs.
Each of the hunters wears a red jacket. Everybody on patrol tonight needs to be on high alert.
Neither of the women has a reliable car. Anyone is permitted to participate in the race.
13. Some indefinite pronouns are always plural (both, few, many, several).
Both were at fault in the opinion of the army general. Many of my classmates are going on the trip to Mexico.
14. Noun and pronoun subjects like all, any, most, none, more, part, some, half, one-half, two-thirds, a lot of may take either a singular or plural verb, depending on the prepositional phrase that follows them. (This is the only circumstance in which the object of the preposition is ever considered.)
All of the pie is gone. All of the cookies are gone. None of the oil from the car has dripped onto your driveway. Some of the cake was eaten. Some of the puzzle's pieces were found in the closet.
15. A relative pronoun (who, whom, which, that) used as the subject of a clause takes a singular or plural verb depending on its antecedent. In other words, you must know which word the pronoun refers to before you decide which verb to use.
Every volunteer who works tonight must wear safety glasses. I bought the peach that was ripe. I bought the peaches that were ripe. She is a competent employee who is expected to succeed.
Note: For phrases like "one of the students who" or "one of the things that," logic must dictate. (A phrase with "only one" takes a singular verb.)
16. When units of measurement for distance, time, volume, height, weight, money, etc. are used as subjects, they usually take the singular verb form.
Two teaspoons of sugar was all that the cake recipe called for. Four pounds of rice seems to be more than we really need. Five dollars is too much to pay for a hot dog.
17. Only the subject affects the form of the verb.
My dog's biggest problem in this hot weather is fleas.