What are the characteristics of DNA?
Adenine(A), Thymine(T), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C)
I'm going to answer the question 'Are chromosomes responsible FOR inheritING the characterISTICS of an organism?' Hope that's what you meant. Chromosomes aren't responsible as such, chromosomes are bundled up strands of DNA, and the DNA is what's responsible for.... well, it's not really the characteristics, DNA, genes, describe the limits of an organisms characteristics, its GENOTYPE. The genotype plus the organism's environment are responsible for its characteristics, that is its PHENOTYPE.
Some aspects of a person't Personality. We are born with one out of three types of personalities (determined by our DNA) but their are a further 16 personalities which combine different characteristics of the first three and these characteristics are developed through exposure and personal growth, not DNA.
"Transformation" refers to a change in the heritable characteristics in bacteria that have been incubated with DNA of other bacteria. Some of these incubated bacteria will acquire some of the characteristics of the bacteria from which the DNA was extracted. The DNA enters the incubated bacteria through holes in the cell membrane, and gets incorporated into the bacterial genome.