What are the physics of the telephone?


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Boiled down, the telephone can do two things simultaneously:

(1) Convert speech (sound waves) into an electrical signal than can travel through wires.

(2) Convert that electrical signal back into audible sound waves.

The first component is a microphone in the mouthpiece.

The second component is a speaker in the earpiece.

Both are examples of transducers -- devices that convert electrical energy to/from mechanical energy.

Alexander Graham Bell figured out how to make both kinds of transducers.

Then he connected two sets by long wires and applied a DC voltage from a battery. Modern telephones (land lines) still do pretty much the same thing.