What are the subsystems of HRD?

HRD Sub-System(Mechanisms or Instruments)


With reference to the dimensions/components/sub-system of HRD, many thinkers and professionals have given divergent views and designed the mechanisms of HRD in different ways.

A well designed HRD programme should have the following sub-systems:

v Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal is the process of determining how well a worker is performing his job. It provides a mechanism for identification of qualities and deficiencies observed in an employee in relation to his job performance. The object of appraisal is to determine the present state of efficiency of a worker in order to establish the actual need for training. The process of performance appraisal consists of:

· Setting standards for performance

· Communicating the standard to the employees

· Measuring the performance

· Comparing the actual performance with the standards set

v Potential Appraisal: Potential appraisal provides necessary data which helps in preparing career plans for individuals. It aims at development of latent abilities of individuals. The HRD function has a long way to go in introducing a streamlined potential appraisal system which ensures a good match between the employees and the job.

v Feedback Counselling: Feedback of performance data can be used to monitor individual development and for indentifying training needs. Career counselling and verbal rewards are integral parts of review discussions between the superior and the subordinate. Counselling serves several purposes in any organisation. It helps in strengthening the superior and subordinate relationship, helps the executives to understand the limitation of his seniors and problems of his juniors, improves communication, thereby facilitating quality decision, helps employees in recognising their strengths and weakness and also help evaluate the impact of their decisions and so on.

v Training: Training is a process that involves the acquisition of skills, concepts and attitudes in order to increase the effectiveness of employees in doing particular jobs. Training is expected to provides the needful stimulus to initiate impulses of changes in management and to improve efficiency, productivity and administrative effectiveness.

v Role Analysis: Role analysis is a participatory process which aims at defining the work content of a role in relation to all those with whom the role occupant has significant interaction in the performance of his job

v Career Planning: It is the planning of one's career and implementation of career plans by means of education, training, job search and acquisition of work experiences. It is aimed at generating among employees an awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and at helping them to match their skills and abilities to the needs of the organisation. Without development of people in the organisation , the organisation cannot prosper. Individual career development is considered to be a three step process:

§ Identifying and organising skills, interests, work-related needs and values

§ Converting these inventories into general careers, fields and specified job-goals and

§ Testing the possibilities against the realities of the organisation or the job market

v Job Rotation: The work-task should be rotated among the employees so as to broaden their field of specialisation as well as their knowledge about the organisation's operation as a whole, one should be rotated once a year among the various employees depending upon their qualifications and suitability to perform new works.

v Quality Circle: A quality circle is a small group of employees doing similar or related work who meet regularly to identify, analyse and solve product-quality problems and to improve general operation. The quality circles are relatively autonomous units (ideally about 10 workers), usually, led by a supervisor or a senior worker and organised as work units. The workers, who have a shared area of responsibility, meet periodically to discuss, analyse, and propose solutions to ongoing problems.

v Reward system: Rewarding employees performance over and above their normal wages and salaries is considered to be an important task of the HRD. To check frustration is rewarding the efficient workers for their work which may be known as incentive. It will lead to better utilisation of human resources at all levels which is easy, cheapest, quickest and surest means of increasing productivity.

v Organisation Development: Organisation development is an organisation-wide, planned efforts managed from the top, placing emphasis on making appropriate intervention in the ongoing activities of the organisation. OD provides a normative framework within which changes in the climate and culture of the organisation towards harnessing the human potential for realisation of organisational objectives.

v Quality of Working Life: The condition under which the workers work and live, assume the form of another important factor contributing to workers satisfaction or otherwise and consequently the job satisfaction. In order of priorities, it comes next to the earning of a worker in the Indian context. For an employee to be able to work at his best, it is necessary to understand that inadequate working and living condition produce adverse mental and physical effect on the employee, ultimately causing decline in the efficiency.

v Human Resource Planning: It is the process aimed at ensuring that the organisation will have adequate number of qualified persons, available at proper time, performing jobs which would meet the needs of the organisation and also provide satisfaction for the individuals involved.

v Recruitment, Selection and Placement: Recruitment is generation of applications for specific positions of ascertaining the qualification, experience, skills, knowledge, etc of applicants with a view to appraising their stability for a job. Placement is the process of assigning the selected candidate with the most suitable job. It underlines the need for placing right men at the right job so that the best results could be obtained. These are explained in separate chapters in the book.