What conditions do psychrophiles live in?
Extreme cold. Typically the Arctic and Antarctic oceans.
What metabolic and structural adaptations for extreme temperatures have psychrophiles and thermophiles made of?
Food spoilage microorganisms all need these things, but the specifics may be different * Food * Water * Proper Temperature * pH * Oxygen Not all spoilage organisms prefer the same conditions. Thermophiles like it hot. Psychrophiles like it cold. Most pathogens are Mesophiles - they like what we like. Yeasts and molds will grow under acid conditions. Clostridia will form toxins only under anaerobic conditions. Some bacteria can grow both with or without air.