What does Antarctica mean?

Antarctic comes via Latin from the Greek Antarktikos. Antarctica is at the opposite end of the earth from the Arctic, so, it is the Antipode of the Arctic - ANT-ARCTIC.

The word Antarctica is based in the Greek word for bear: Arctos. Arctos is the name of a constellation visible from the northern hemisphere. The northern polar region is named Arctic, after Arctos. In advance of understanding the mysteries of the opposite polar region, they named it anyway, as opposite of Arctic or Anti-Arktos, which evolved into Antarctic, the region and Antarctica, the name of the continent.