What does the Islamic crecent and star symbolise?
In 339 BC the city of Byzantium, (later known as Constantinople
and then Istanbul), won a decisive battle against the Athenians
under a brilliant waxing moon which they attributed to their patron
Goddess Artemis (Diana in Roman mythology) whose symbol was the
crescent moon. In honor of Artemis the citizens adopted the
crescent moon as their symbol (though some legends attribute the
adoption to a Roman victory against the Goths on the first day of
the lunar month). When the city became the Christian Roman
Constantinople in 330 AD, Constantine also added the Virgin Mary's
star on the flag.