What effect does latitude have on climate?
Latitude has everything to do with climate . - The tropics are between 23.5S and 23.5N latitude, - here high temperatures are the norm. Either way north or south from this, ambient temperatures get lower and climate is cooler as you move towards either pole.
"Latitude" is a purely human invention, and has only been around for a few hundred years. No point on earth knows or cares how we define or describe its latitude, and its latitude has no effect on its climate. Long before latitude was invented and Miami's had been measured, the climate there was exactly the same as it is now.
The climate does not necessarily affect the latitude, but the latitude may affect the converse. This answer definately needs improvement, however you can tell by looking at a map that the farther away a country is from the equator, the colder it gets. For example, look at the latitudinal distance from the equator of Northern Canada and Antartica.