What federal courts are not trial courts?
The US Court of Appeals Circuit Courts only review cases under their appellate jurisdiction; the US Supreme Court hears most of the cases it selects under appellate jurisdiction, but considers disputes between the states under original (trial) jurisdiction.
At a local level, there are local trial courts, the only courts that don't act as appellate courts. Above the local trial courts are intermediate appellate courts, above which is the State Supreme Court. At a federal level, there are circuit and district courts, with the Federal Supreme Court at the top.
Primarily the U.S. District Courts, though there are other trial courts as well, including magistrate courts, the bankruptcy courts, the U.S. Court of International Trade, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, various military courts, and the U.S. Tax Court. For a detailed summary of the U.S. federal court system, see "Understanding Federal and State Courts" at <http://www.uscourts.gov/EducationalResources/FederalCourtBasics/CourtStructure/UnderstandingFederalAndStateCourts.aspx>
Courts that have the authority to be the first courts in which most federal cases are heard is known as?
Not all federal courts are trial courts. Some are appeal courts. Appeal courts only review cases already heard by trial courts. Some lower courts are specialized and only have trials on specific issues. The Supreme Court has only heard appeals since 1924. The Supreme Court reserves the right to hold a trial. No one has suggested any reason why the Supreme Court would sit as a court of original jurisdiction. Still, it could.
No. Most state cases stay within the state court system, and most federal appeals are from lower federal courts. The Federal courts only hear appeals from the state courts if the case involves a preserved federal question (a question of federal or constitutional law that has been raised at every level from the trial through the appellate process). Under special circumstances, federal courts may also hear cases that would ordinarily be heard in state courts…
The main purpose of the federal district courts is to hear federal trials. The purpose of the federal courts of appeal is to hear appeals from those trials. The United States district courts are the federal trial courts. Their 654 judges handle more than 300,000 cases a year, about 80 percent of the federal caseload. The district courts were created by Congress in the Judiciary Act of 1789.
No. There are a variety of federal courts that handle only specific types of law, such as federal tax court. Federal district court, the general trial courts in the federal system, have broad authority to handle trials, but only on matters of federal question or if the federal courts have jurisdiction for some other reason, such as diversity.