Yes. Both words have a long A sound (ay) from the AI vowel pair.
No, it is the long a sound.
An example of the schwa vowel sound is the sound the letter a makes in the word "about".
Yes, it is a short vowel sound. The long vowel sound for the letter u is when it's pronounced "you;" the short vowel sound for the letter u is when it's pronounced "uh," like in this word.
No, it is not. The way to remember is if the vowel says its name, then it's a long vowel sound. In the world "plane," the A says its name. On the other hand, the word "plan" is a short vowel sound. You can see this with other words too: pine (long vowel-- the "i" says its name), but "pin" is a short vowel sound.
The letter Y can be a consonant or a vowel. It is sometimes called a semi-vowel.
The letter "U" in "sun" has a short U vowel sound.
Toad has a long vowel sound from the letter o.
Child has one vowel, the letter i. It has a long vowel sound in child.
No, it does not. The mnemonic that might help is that the sound of a long vowel is the vowel's name. The words crow and note have the long vowel sound of the letter O.