Q: What happens if you plug a 240V electrical appliance into a 120V circuit?

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This scenario can not happen as the two types of plugs have different pin configurations. This is done for safety reasons so that these types of mistakes will not happen.

You will burn up your appliance!!!!!

No, unless it's a gas range. An electric range requires 240V and 40A while a small appliance will be 120V and Max 15A.

On a pure 240V circuit, no. There is no neutral. On a 240/120V circuit, yes. You have the needed neutral. Tapping 120volts off an existing 240volt branch circuit with a neutral is possible but is not a proper method. It does not comply with most electrical codes.

The amps drawn will be cut in half but the appliance motor, if there is one, may not be able to start up and burn up.

you get an adapter

120V appliance will not work on 220V. Use an instrument transformer or voltage regulator to adjust the high voltage to the desired level.

The voltage isn't a problem, you can run 220 from your house and use that to run a European appliance, the problem is whether the appliance is dependant on line HZ. European is 50HZ and US is 60HZ. If the appliance specifies 220/50HZ, it will probably give you trouble here. If it says 220V/50 or 60HZ

120V / 12 ohms = 10amps. 120V * 10amps = 1200 Watts.

yes

1440 Watts

No problem what so ever. The 125 volt rating on the appliance is the maximum amount of voltage that is recommended for the appliance. This recommendation is set by the manufacturer of the appliance.

Yes, no problem at all.

if its a single current its 120v X 25 amp = 3000 watts

Yes. It's functionally the same.

"Volts" is electrical pressure applied to a circuit; whereas, "ohms" is electrical resistance to that pressure. One cannot determine ohms from voltage without knowing either the current (in "amps") or power (in "watts"). A normal 120V household circuit can handle a maximum of 20 amps, so using ohm's law of resistance = voltage / current, the minimum resistance required in a 120V household circuit would be 6 ohms. Any less than 6 ohms will cause the circuit breaker to trip.

12 ohms

Have an electrician wire you a proper line for the appliance. You were just kidding about the 100A, right? 10, or 20amp, not 100.

there is 120V across the circuit.

You don't unless it shows a dual rating on the appliance.

If the appliance is just to be plugged into a circuit with multiple outlets then you just need to make sure that the sum of currents for all devices on the circuit are less than the rated current. A rule of thumb is total current should be no greater than 80% of the rated current. So you might have a 20 A breaker and several 2.5 A appliances on this circuit. If you have a dedicated circuit for the appliance you would only need to size the breaker for the maximum current being drawn by the appliance. If the appliance contained a motor then there might be a start-up current that might be as high as 15 amps so you would likely go to a 20 amp breaker for a safety margin. As a practical matter a dedicated circuit for an appliance in the 2.5 amp range should have a 15 amp breaker. I always install a 20 amp breaker just for added margin and possible future applications.

6 amps

A high voltage will certainly damage a low voltage appliance and perhaps set fire to other things nearby.

Yes, as long as the device is within 10% of the rated voltage.

No, the cord ends have different configurations to prevent this sort of thing from happening.