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In reference to the melting of DNA: as DNA melts (denatures from a double-stranded molecule to two single strands) the UV absorbance INCREASES. This absorbance increase is referred to as a "hyperchromic shift" or the hyperchromic effect. Thinking about this situation in reverse: the UV absorbance DECREASES as two DNA strands anneal to form double stranded DNA. This is referred to as the "hypochromic effect". (Please note, there is an answer on answers.com that incorrectly states the opposite, that absorbance decreases with melting. This is incorrect. Two single strands of DNA have higher absorbance than the double-stranded molecule.)
* Cell color (blood cells): (generally refers to the staining characteristics which reflects the hemoglobin concentration. Terms that describe hemoglobin content end with "chromic".) ~ normochromic (sufficient or normal amounts of hemoglobin) ~ hyperchromic (containing an unusually high concentration of hemoglobin in its cytoplasm) ~ hypochromic (containing an abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin)
well, that's what i understand and am not an expert there is nuclear cytoplasmic dissociation in which the immaturity is for the nucleus only but the cytoplasmic organelle are mature folate is needed in production of thymine (purely DNA) but to get RNA you dont need it uracil) so you will have mature cytoplasm in which HG is normally formed (not arrested) MCHC is normal but MCH is elevated coz MCH is dividing the HG by RBC count which will give you the HG per cell,, which is higher simply because you have a larger space (big cell) but MCHC is not elevated (not hyperchromic) hope it helped Mansour
Hyperchromic anemia can cause a lower red blood cell count and higher levels of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Other effects include brittle nails, sore mouth, headaches, and shortness of breath.
DefinitionRed blood cell (RBC) indices are part of the complete blood count (CBC) test. They are used to help diagnose the cause of anemia, a condition in which there are too few red blood cells.The indices include:Average red blood cell size (MCV)Hemoglobinamount per red blood cell (MCH)The amount of hemoglobin relative to the size of the cell (hemoglobin concentration) per red blood cell (MCHC)See also: RBC countAlternative NamesErythrocyte indices; Blood indices; Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH); Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC); Mean corpuscular volume (MCV); Red blood cell indicesHow the test is performedBlood is typically drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm.Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.The values for MCHC, and MCH are calculated from the hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit(Hct), and RBC count:MCHC = Hgb/HctMCH = Hgb/RBC countThe MCV is measured directly by a machine.How to prepare for the testNo special preparation is necessary.How the test will feelWhen the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.Why the test is performedRBCs transport hemoglobin which, in turn, transports oxygen. The amount of oxygen tissues receive depends on the amount and function of RBCs and hemoglobin.The MCV reflects the size of red blood cells. The MCH and MCHC reflect the hemoglobin content of red blood cells. These RBC measures are used to diagnose types of anemia.Anemias are defined based on cell size (MCV) and amount of Hgb (MCH).MCV less than lower limit of normal: microcytic anemiaMCV within normal range: normocytic anemiaMCV greater than upper limit of normal: macrocytic anemiaMCH less than lower limit of normal: hypochromic anemiaMCH within normal range: normochromic anemiaMCH greater than upper limit of normal: hyperchromic anemiaNormal ValuesMCV: 80 to 100 femtoliterMCH: 27 to 31 picograms/cellMCHC: 32 to 36 grams/deciliterNote: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.What abnormal results meanThis test is used to diagnose the cause of anemia. The following are the types of anemia and their causes:Normocytic/normochromic (NC/NC) anemia is caused by sudden blood loss, prosthetic heart valves, sepsis, tumor, long-term disease or aplastic anemia.Microcytic/hypochromic anemia is caused by iron deficiency, lead poisoning, or thalassemia.Microcytic/normochromic anemia results from a deficiency of the hormone erythropoietin from kidney failure.Macrocytic/normochromic anemia results from chemotherapy, folate deficiency, or vitamin B-12 deficiency.What the risks areVeins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:Excessive bleedingFainting or feeling light-headedHematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)ReferencesZuckerman K. Approach to the anemias. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 162.