A person who has completed all degree requirements towards a Doctor of Philosophy, but still lacks completion of the dissertation process. Also known as ABD (all but dissertation). In most institutions, this is not a recognized degree, but it is not uncommon for people to use either the PhDc or ABD (the latter is more common) to indicate their status. In most cases, this means successful completion of all coursework, passing grades on all comprehensive exams, passing grades on all foreign language exams, and approval of the dissertation prospectus.
Juneteenth is a special day in history. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, but it did not reach the slaves in states that were part of the Confederacy until much later. The Emancipation Proclamation finally reached Texas on June 19, 1865. Because of this, we celebrate Juneteenth. Juneteenth is mostly celebrated in Texas and surrounding states.
There is a history of smallpox inoculation that goes back as far as 1000 AD in China, Africa, and Turkey. However, the person credited with creating the first vaccine is Edward Jenner, an English scientist who pioneered one for smallpox in 1796. His breakthrough came from taking pus from a blister of someone infected with cowpox and using it to inoculate another person, thus preventing smallpox in that person. He developed this treatment after hypothesizing that dairy workers were rarely, if ever, infected with the deadly smallpox virus because most of them were already infected with cowpox, which has a very mild effect on humans.
So it’s kind of a complicated process, but here’s the two-sentence version: Lightning is an electric current that takes the path of least resistance from the base of a cloud to the ground. Since the air it travels through is not uniform—variations in things like temperature, humidity, and pollutants determine how resistant air is to the charge—the lightning has to zig and zag to stay on that path.
New Zealand and the islands of the Pacific are not considered part of a continent, but New Zealand is variously grouped (as is New Guinea) with the continent of Australia or with the larger conglomeration of Oceania, which, by definition, is not a geographical continent. New Zealand consists of two main and some smaller islands, and most of this territory sits on the Australian tectonic plate but straddles the plate boundary.Australia and Oceania are two completely different things. Australia (a continent) lies within the political region known as Oceania, which comprises also the islands of New Guinea, New Zealand and various other island nations in the South Pacific.New Zealand is the above-water part of a continental mass called Zealandia, about the size of India, and most of which has never been above the water's surface.Continents are defined by their landmass block, which is generally taken to be out to the edge of the Continental Shelf, where the contours drop off steeply to the abyssal deeps.
In a word, no, but scientists can make educated guesses. The closest living relatives of the dinosaurs are crocodilians and birds, and we can look to the ways they vocalize to give us a hint.Alligators and crocodiles use their larynxes to communicate—they’ll hiss, groan, and yes, roar (here’s a compilation of their sounds). Dinosaurs might have had larynxes, but since those don’t fossilize, it’s impossible to know for sure. Birds, meanwhile, use an organ called a syrinx, which seems to have evolved after dinosaurs. That might indicate that dinos couldn’t vocalize at all, which would be a bummer.However, there’s also a possibility that they evolved a unique way to vocalize. For example, based on studying their skulls and inner ears, some have theorized that hadrosaurs used their crests to bellow at each other.So, they probably didn’t roar, but bellowing can be pretty cool too, right?
There are many explanations offered for the origin of the name chickenpox:Samuel Johnson suggested that the disease was "less dangerous", thus a "chicken" version of the pox;the specks that appear looked as though the skin was pecked by chickens;the disease was named after chick peas, from a supposed similarity in size of the seed to the lesions;the term reflects a corruption of the Old English word giccin, which meant itching.
While organ music had appeared at hockey rinks in the 1930s, it first bellowed through a baseball stadium on April 26, 1941. Organist Ray Nelson played “classic and soulful compositions” before the Cubs took on the Cardinals at Wrigley Field. He had to stop before the game started, however, because he was playing copyrighted songs that could’ve been picked up by radio broadcasts.The baseball-stadium organ caught on quickly, however; the following season, the Brooklyn Dodgers hired a permanent organist, and their popularity increased through the mid-20th century. Nowadays, they’re commonplace.Oddly enough, the Cubs removed Nelson’s organ from the grandstand during a road trip shortly after it first appeared—the copyright liability was just too much for them—and organ music wouldn’t return to Wrigley until 1967.
you can chill it in the freezer for a certain amount of time or cut it under water
I assume you’re referring to the difference between the glorious mustiness of a library and the glorious plasticy newness of a bookstore. That’s probably due to the fact that as paper ages, the cellulose within it decays, letting off that sweet, sweet book smell. Bookstore books haven’t had as much time to decay (unless it’s a used bookstore), leading to that different smell.
about 100 years
There's no way to speak for all animals, but there is evidence that some animals do have ways to differentiate each other. Some parrots, for example, seem to identify themselves with specific sets of peeps, and it's possible their parents give them those names. Sweet, right?And parrots aren't the only animals we suspect name each other. Dolphins also have distinctive whistles that function similarly to names. To prove this, researchers played a variety of whistles to a group of dolphins, and the individuals only replied to their signature sound, as if they were calling back when their name had been called.
That honor goes to Bruno Sammartino, who held the then WWWF Championship for seven years, eight months, and one day. He won the title from Buddy Rogers on May 17, 1963, and dropped it to Ivan Koloff on Jan. 18, 1971. Koloff held it for 20 days.
The first official Swanson-brand TV dinner consisted of a Thanksgiving-style meal with turkey, gravy, cornbread stuffing, sweet potatoes, and buttered peas. It sold for 98 cents.
Yes. All mammals, sans marsupials and rare egg-layers, have belly buttons. Belly buttons are simply remnants of the umbilical cords. Humans' belly buttons are pretty noticeable, but dogs' belly buttons are small scars that are usually covered in fur.
The 1918 influenza pandemic ended in the summer of 1919. The disease was first detected in the U.S. in March 1918, and it surged three separate times. The second wave of illness (in the fall of 1918) was responsible for most of the deaths.
Nothing! He didn't have a middle name, per se. According to Truman himself, the initial was a way to honor both his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young.
Most hummingbirds migrate south in late August or early September, but some may start as early as July. They depart for the return trip as early as January—they have a long way to go and typically arrive by mid-May. Hummingbirds migrate individually, not in flocks, so there's actually a lot of variation in their migration habits. For example, older birds tend to start migrating earlier than younger ones.
According to The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, consuming less than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day (roughly one to two cups of coffee) isn't a major contributing factor in miscarriage or preterm birth. However, according to a new study in the journal BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, there is no safe level of caffeine that one can consume during pregnancy. Complications arising from caffeine consumption can include an increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and low birth weight.
Nope, salamanders aren’t lizards—surprisingly, they aren’t even reptiles. They’re amphibians. It’s understandable to mistake the slender, long-tailed, little-legged creatures for lizards, but they’re actually closer relatives to frogs. Take a look at them—you can kind of see it! Like frogs and other amphibians, salamander babies have gills and live in the water, then move to moist land as adults. That’s because their adult skin absorbs water but also loses it, so they need constant replenishment. Lizards (and all reptiles) don’t need to live on moist land. While some are comfortable in the water, they can never breathe it, and their scaly skin prevents water loss.
The term “man flu” stems from the idea that men are prone to exaggerating the severity of their symptoms when experiencing the common cold or another minor ailment. Although the phrase is most often used in a tongue-in-cheek way, there may be some merit to the male whine. In 2017’s customarily playful (but still peer-reviewed) Christmas edition of The BMJ, professor Kyle Sue pointed to research suggesting that men are more susceptible to complications when suffering from an acute respiratory disease. They’re also more likely to go to the hospital and, unfortunately, succumb to the flu.
The Democratic Party’s donkey can be traced back to the 1828 presidential campaign of Andrew Jackson, whose opponents referred to him as a “jackass.” Jackson embraced the image and featured the donkey on his campaign posters. Years later, a political cartoonist named Thomas Nast helped popularize the donkey as a symbol for the whole Democratic Party. Nast was also responsible for promoting the elephant as a symbol for the Republican Party. He first used it in an 1874 drawing titled “The Third-Term Panic” featuring an elephant labeled “The Republican vote.” He continued to use the elephant as a symbol for the party, and other cartoonists followed suit, cementing the association.
Fresh water fish absorb water through their skin and gills, saltwater fish actually do drink water. In saltwater fish, they have to drink because their body's concentration of salt is lower than the surrounding water. Therefore, they have to drink huge amounts of water every day to stay hydrated. In freshwater fish, their salt concentration is higher than that of the surrounding water, and, as osmosis dictates, they absorb water through their highly permeable skin. To keep from bursting, freshwater fish actually have to excrete water, up to 10 times their body weight daily, unlike saltwater fish.