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What is iplc?

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โˆ™ 2008-04-13 12:31:54

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IPLC stands for international private leased circuit IPLC stands for international private leased circuit

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โˆ™ 2008-04-13 12:31:54
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What does IPLC stand for?

IPLC stands for Internationl Privat Leased Circuit.


How do you start new bpo company?

Name: Jeyaganeshemail id: jeyaganesh4@gmail.comStarting a BPO – a business planThe owners always need to have a proper business plan in order to set up a successful BPO. Ideally, they should go for a BPO market segment where they have the requisite skill. They should also have a clear idea about the number of clients they will want to deal with at various stages of their operation.To start with, the entrepreneurs should provide these companies their resumes as it is crucial to have a proper profile at the initial stages. They should also be ready to make minor adjustments to their desired pay structure at these stages.Following are the major components of a business plan:Business goalsLogisticsFinancial requirementsStaffing plansStarting a BPO – the application processThe application form for a Business Process Outsourcing entity differs with respect to various entities. With some organizations, the application procedure is easy as they have online application forms that can be filled out.In case of other companies, the owners need to get in touch with them directly and then arrange for a meeting where they will be able to highlight their abilities and experience. The owners should remember that with higher complexities their chances of success and staving off competition will be better.It has often been seen that companies take a lot of time to reply. The entrepreneurs need to keep track of any progress in this regard. At times, they need to take the initiative and call up the companies where they have applied and get the latest information regarding their application.The following table provides a comparative representation of the application procedures necessary for domestic and international call centers when it concerns the Department of Telecommunications of India:Domestic call centersInternational call centers Demand draft of specified amount drawn in favor of Pay and Accounts Officer (HQ) DoT. This is used as processing fee.Demand draft of specified amount drawn in favor of Pay and Accounts Officer (HQ) DoT. This is used as processing fee. Address of every location connected with leased lines or PSTN lines with incoming facilities onlyAddress of the location of every Indian and international terminal with IPLC connections Bandwidth of lines that have been taken on leaseBandwidth of lines that have been taken on lease and the reasons to justify the same Amount of call center seatsAmount of call center seats The organizational Memorandum of Article of AssociationThe organizational Memorandum of Article of Association Schematic representation of the call center plan and total details of equipments being used Schematic representation of the call center plan and total details of equipments being used Name of clients. If clients are yet to be procured then the information can be provided prior to starting the serviceName of clients. If clients are yet to be procured then the information can be provided prior to starting the serviceNature of business operationsProof of business type and contracts signed with end customers Starting a BPO – the important detailsWhen an entrepreneur is trying to make repeated applications to a client that is yet to come back with an answer, they can highlight the following aspects:Weekly market statisticsMailing memorable items on a regular basis - this can include holiday postcards and sports schedulesPromotional items that have the applicants’ contact information and company logoIt is crucial that the lenders and banks have a positive image of a BPO. The entrepreneurs can start operations by researching for an updated list of companies that need to hire BPOs. The best way to achieve this is to procure a list from a well known provider of such information.Starting a call center – important business decisionsThe basic factor in starting a successful call center is deciding its nature of operations. Following are the major options available in this regard:InboundOutsourceOutboundStarting a call center – guidelinesThe call centers are registered, as per the company established rules, under the Other Service Provider category. They can serve Indian companies on a non-exclusive basis. To start with, they are allowed to operate for a maximum period of 20 years following registration.The call centers can avail 100 percent foreign direct investment. But they need to make sure that they inform the relevant authorities before they change the equity structure or their Indian or international partners. The applicable regulations also have to be followed in this regard.The resources can be procured from authorized sources only. The local leased lines need to be taken from certified service providers and the IPLC has to be collected from certified operators of International Long Distance services.The service providers normally assess the network diagram and provide resources to the OSP. This is done according to terms and conditions of the approval and prevalent policy guidelines pertaining to the concerned service provider. The service provider and the OSP, both, will be held accountable in case there is a violation of rules.Normally domestic call centers are allowed to be set up on separate infrastructures. But requests for establishing a call center on an existing private network are judged on a case by case basis.Two domestic call centers of the same organization can be interconnected but only after obtaining the necessary permission from the DoT. The permission is provided in case of the following situations:RedundancyLoad balancingBack upHowever, domestic call centers are not allowed to interconnect with their international counterparts. PSTN connectivity is also not allowed in the following cases. They are allowed to handle both inbound and outbound calls.The Indian end of an international call center is allowed to avail IPLC and internet connectivity in the same LAN. However, this permission is provided on the grounds that there shall be no transfer of data and voice traffic from the ISP through the call center’s IPLC.If the company wants to increase an approved IPLC’s bandwidth then it can approach a certified ILD directly and inform the DoT within 15 days of the same. In case, it wants to add or change the POP, then the application needs to be sent directly to the DoT itself.International call centers are allowed to interconnect with “Hot Sites” for getting back up and operating during any disaster. However, this permission is only given if international call center owners have provided the following facilities:An exclusive router or server at the hot siteA locally leased line that connects the IPLC provider to the hot siteLocal lease lines to the dedicated server at the hot siteThe hot sites can only be used during the disaster. The process involves a request to the IPLC provider to change the IPLC towards the hot sites. In such circumstances, the DoT has to be informed as well.The international call centers belonging to the same company can also cross map their seats for using them during any disaster. Under normal circumstances the actual call center will use all the seats but in abnormal situations they will have to leave the cross mapped seats for the other international call center. The DoT has to be informed in these cases as well.


What is porters diamond?

The Diamond - Four Determinants of National Competitive Advantage * Four attributes of a nation comprise Porter's "Diamond" of national advantage. They are: # factor conditions (i.e. the nation's position in factors of production, such as skilled labour and infrastructure), # demand conditions (i.e. sophisticated customers in home market), # related and supporting industries, and # firm strategy, structure and rivalry (i.e. conditions for organization of companies, and the nature of domestic rivalry).# Factor Conditions * Factor conditions refers to inputs used as factors of production - such as labour, land, natural resources, capital and infrastructure. This sounds similar to standard economic theory, but Porter argues that the "key" factors of production (or specialized factors) are created, not inherited. Specialized factors of production are skilled labour, capital and infrastructure. * "Non-key" factors or general use factors, such as unskilled labour and raw materials, can be obtained by any company and, hence, do not generate sustained competitive advantage. However, specialized factors involve heavy, sustained investment. They are more difficult to duplicate. This leads to a competitive advantage, because if other firms cannot easily duplicate these factors, they are valuable. * Porter argues that a lack of resources often actually helps countries to become competitive (call it selected factor disadvantage). Abundance generates waste and scarcity generates an innovative mindset. Such countries are forced to innovate to overcome their problem of scarce resources. How true is this? # Switzerland was the first country to experience labour shortages. They abandoned labour-intensive watches and concentrated on innovative/high-end watches. # Japan has high priced land and so its factory space is at a premium. This lead to just-in-time inventory techniques (Japanese firms can't have a lot of stock taking up space, so to cope with the potential of not have goods around when they need it, they innovated traditional inventory techniques). # Sweden has a short building season and high construction costs. These two things combined created a need for pre-fabricated houses.b. Demand Conditions* Porter argues that a sophisticated domestic market is an important element to producing competitiveness. Firms that face a sophisticated domestic market are likely to sell superior products because the market demands high quality and a close proximity to such consumers enables the firm to better understand the needs and desires of the customers (this same argument can be used to explain the first stage of the IPLC theory when a product is just initially being developed and after it has been perfected, it doesn't have to be so close to the discriminating consumers). * If the nation's discriminating values spread to other countries, then the local firms will be competitive in the global market. * One example is the French wine industry. The French are sophisticated wine consumers. These consumers force and help French wineries to produce high quality wines. Can you think of other examples? Or counter-examples? c. Related and Supporting Industries* Porter also argues that a set of strong related and supporting industries is important to the competitiveness of firms. This includes suppliers and related industries. This usually occurs at a regional level as opposed to a national level. Examples include Silicon valley in the U.S., Detroit (for the auto industry) and Italy (leather-shoes-other leather goods industry). * The phenomenon of competitors (and upstream and/or downstream industries) locating in the same area is known as clustering or agglomeration. What are the advantages and disadvantages of locating within a cluster? Some advantages to locating close to your rivals may be # potential technology knowledge spillovers, # an association of a region on the part of consumers with a product and high quality and therefore some market power, or # an association of a region on the part of applicable labour force.* Some disadvantages to locating close to your rivals are # potential poaching of your employees by rival companies and # obvious increase in competition possibly decreasing mark-ups.


Product life cycle theory of Foreign Direct Investment?

Vernon's IPLC The theory Vernon's International Product lifecycle (1966) is based on the experience of the US market. Vernon himself observed and found that a large proportion of the world's new products came from the US for most of the 20th century. The US at the time was the initiator of the new technologically driven products of the time. The US overtime had become a major importer of many of the goods that it had once developed, produced and exported. Vernon's international product life cycle is used to attempt to explain why this happened. * At the early stages of production the products will not be standardised. The nature of the goods has implications. These are price elasticity, the communication throughout the industry and also the location of the product itself. * As the product starts to mature, the conditions also start to change. A certain degree of standardisation takes place and the demand of the products will start to appear elsewhere. As the demand starts to increase, the overseas markets then start producing for themselves generally at a cheaper labour and overall cost. The US firms may also decide to set up production facilities in these advanced economies and consequently the US exports are then limited. * As the markets in the US and these other developed countries mature the product will then become standardised. The developments of the life cycle are once again changing. Now that there is more demand and cheaper labour costs from overseas countries, the pricing becomes the main competitive tool and cost becomes more of an issue than previously. The producers internationally based in advanced countries then have the opportunity to export back to the US. This can lead to the underdeveloped countries offering competitive advantage for the location of production and finally they will become exporters. The evidence suggests that the more standardised the product becomes the more likely the location of production will change. At the same time there is also evidence that unstandardised products will maintain there location in more phosphorus locations. The discussion of the transfer of technology has changed greatly. At the Doha Ministerial it was agreed that the WTO would set up a working group to examine the relationship between Trade and Transfer of Technology and to report findings to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. Technology transfer has been an issue in some parts of the WTO (such as TRIPS), and before that in the GATT and in a great many other international negotiations (especially environmental negotiations) for many years. The key issue was essentially the difference of approach to technology transfer taken by developed and developing countries. Some see technology transfer as taking place implicitly through routine trade relations, and especially through foreign direct investment (FDI) - countries should therefore create the conditions in which FDI can take place (stable regulatory environment, intellectual property protection etc) and technology will follow trade. Others would prefer a more explicit approach with companies being pushed into transferring technology (rather than pulled to a suitable location for FDI) on confessional terms. How we bridge this gap is the key to a positive outcome."http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Product_life_cycle_theory_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment&action=edit%C2%A7ion=new#_ftn1 Overall Vernon's theory implies that overtime the main exporter may change from exporter to importer .This leads to the low cost producers becoming exporters. These kind of changes in barriers such as sharing technology can affect the normal process of the product lifecycle as some technological countries may now be forced to share technology with the LDC's to promote healthy competition between them. Other weaknesses of this theory can be that Vernon's view is ethnocentric. It can also be said that many new products are now produced in advanced economies such as Japan as evidence shows. Globalisation means that there is more dispersed and simultaneous production of comparative advantage. The final weakness of this theory is that this study was carried out in the 60s. The worlds trading importing and exporting has changed immensely over the years.---- http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Product_life_cycle_theory_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment&action=edit%C2%A7ion=new#_ftnref1 Anon Developing Countries & the WTO, available at: [Accessed 21st January 2008]Vernon's IPLC The theory Vernon's International Product lifecycle (1966) is based on the experience of the US market. Vernon himself observed and found that a large proportion of the world's new products came from the US for most of the 20th century. The US at the time was the initiator of the new technologically driven products of the time. The US overtime had become a major importer of many of the goods that it had once developed, produced and exported. Vernon's international product life cycle is used to attempt to explain why this happened. * At the early stages of production the products will not be standardised. The nature of the goods has implications. These are price elasticity, the communication throughout the industry and also the location of the product itself. * As the product starts to mature, the conditions also start to change. A certain degree of standardisation takes place and the demand of the products will start to appear elsewhere. As the demand starts to increase, the overseas markets then start producing for themselves generally at a cheaper labour and overall cost. The US firms may also decide to set up production facilities in these advanced economies and consequently the US exports are then limited. * As the markets in the US and these other developed countries mature the product will then become standardised. The developments of the life cycle are once again changing. Now that there is more demand and cheaper labour costs from overseas countries, the pricing becomes the main competitive tool and cost becomes more of an issue than previously. The producers internationally based in advanced countries then have the opportunity to export back to the US. This can lead to the underdeveloped countries offering competitive advantage for the location of production and finally they will become exporters. The evidence suggests that the more standardised the product becomes the more likely the location of production will change. At the same time there is also evidence that unstandardised products will maintain there location in more phosphorus locations. The discussion of the transfer of technology has changed greatly. At the Doha Ministerial it was agreed that the WTO would set up a working group to examine the relationship between Trade and Transfer of Technology and to report findings to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. Technology transfer has been an issue in some parts of the WTO (such as TRIPS), and before that in the GATT and in a great many other international negotiations (especially environmental negotiations) for many years. The key issue was essentially the difference of approach to technology transfer taken by developed and developing countries. Some see technology transfer as taking place implicitly through routine trade relations, and especially through foreign direct investment (FDI) - countries should therefore create the conditions in which FDI can take place (stable regulatory environment, intellectual property protection etc) and technology will follow trade. Others would prefer a more explicit approach with companies being pushed into transferring technology (rather than pulled to a suitable location for FDI) on confessional terms. How we bridge this gap is the key to a positive outcome."http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Product_life_cycle_theory_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment&action=edit%C2%A7ion=new#_ftn1 Overall Vernon's theory implies that overtime the main exporter may change from exporter to importer .This leads to the low cost producers becoming exporters. These kind of changes in barriers such as sharing technology can affect the normal process of the product lifecycle as some technological countries may now be forced to share technology with the LDC's to promote healthy competition between them. Other weaknesses of this theory can be that Vernon's view is ethnocentric. It can also be said that many new products are now produced in advanced economies such as Japan as evidence shows. Globalisation means that there is more dispersed and simultaneous production of comparative advantage. The final weakness of this theory is that this study was carried out in the 60s. The worlds trading importing and exporting has changed immensely over the years.---- http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Product_life_cycle_theory_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment&action=edit%C2%A7ion=new#_ftnref1 Anon Developing Countries & the WTO, available at: [Accessed 21st January 2008]Vernon's IPLC The theory Vernon's International Product lifecycle (1966) is based on the experience of the US market. Vernon himself observed and found that a large proportion of the world's new products came from the US for most of the 20th century. The US at the time was the initiator of the new technologically driven products of the time. The US overtime had become a major importer of many of the goods that it had once developed, produced and exported. Vernon's international product life cycle is used to attempt to explain why this happened. * At the early stages of production the products will not be standardised. The nature of the goods has implications. These are price elasticity, the communication throughout the industry and also the location of the product itself. * As the product starts to mature, the conditions also start to change. A certain degree of standardisation takes place and the demand of the products will start to appear elsewhere. As the demand starts to increase, the overseas markets then start producing for themselves generally at a cheaper labour and overall cost. The US firms may also decide to set up production facilities in these advanced economies and consequently the US exports are then limited. * As the markets in the US and these other developed countries mature the product will then become standardised. The developments of the life cycle are once again changing. Now that there is more demand and cheaper labour costs from overseas countries, the pricing becomes the main competitive tool and cost becomes more of an issue than previously. The producers internationally based in advanced countries then have the opportunity to export back to the US. This can lead to the underdeveloped countries offering competitive advantage for the location of production and finally they will become exporters. The evidence suggests that the more standardised the product becomes the more likely the location of production will change. At the same time there is also evidence that unstandardised products will maintain there location in more phosphorus locations. The discussion of the transfer of technology has changed greatly. At the Doha Ministerial it was agreed that the WTO would set up a working group to examine the relationship between Trade and Transfer of Technology and to report findings to the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. Technology transfer has been an issue in some parts of the WTO (such as TRIPS), and before that in the GATT and in a great many other international negotiations (especially environmental negotiations) for many years. The key issue was essentially the difference of approach to technology transfer taken by developed and developing countries. Some see technology transfer as taking place implicitly through routine trade relations, and especially through foreign direct investment (FDI) - countries should therefore create the conditions in which FDI can take place (stable regulatory environment, intellectual property protection etc) and technology will follow trade. Others would prefer a more explicit approach with companies being pushed into transferring technology (rather than pulled to a suitable location for FDI) on confessional terms. How we bridge this gap is the key to a positive outcome."http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Product_life_cycle_theory_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment&action=edit%C2%A7ion=new#_ftn1 Overall Vernon's theory implies that overtime the main exporter may change from exporter to importer .This leads to the low cost producers becoming exporters. These kind of changes in barriers such as sharing technology can affect the normal process of the product lifecycle as some technological countries may now be forced to share technology with the LDC's to promote healthy competition between them. Other weaknesses of this theory can be that Vernon's view is ethnocentric. It can also be said that many new products are now produced in advanced economies such as Japan as evidence shows. Globalisation means that there is more dispersed and simultaneous production of comparative advantage. The final weakness of this theory is that this study was carried out in the 60s. The worlds trading importing and exporting has changed immensely over the years.---- http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Product_life_cycle_theory_of_Foreign_Direct_Investment&action=edit%C2%A7ion=new#_ftnref1 Anon Developing Countries & the WTO, available at: [Accessed 21st January 2008]