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What is menigitis?


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Answered 2010-02-07 22:35:02

A infection that kills white blood cells and starts to kill your body in less than 24 hrs.

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Where can spinal meningitis be found?

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Diseases such as cholera menigitis polio-myelitis and typhoid are usually attributed to?

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What are medicinal properties of arsenicum?

Arsenicum album is a homeopathic medicine as remedy for fear of death,vertigo,anoemia of the brain,hydrocephalus,cerebo spinal menigitis,antharax,herpes,sciatical,eucorrehoea,larymgitis,cancer of tongue.


Can you get bacterial menigitis from mold?

No. Mold is a fungus, not a bacteria. You can get mycotoxin exposure to certain types of mold, which will make you very sick, and can even be fatal in high enough concentrations. However, you can only get bacterial meningitis from certain bacterial infections.


Can abscesses form several months after accident Can abscesses take several months to be caught showing up only when mengitis is diagnoised?

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What are the side effects of the menigitis shot?

The side effects that are associated with the meningitis shot may be mild or serious. The most common side effects are redness and pain at the site of the injection. Very rare side effects include fever and an allergic reaction within minutes to hours of receiving the vaccine.


How you get menigitis?

The most common causes of meningitis are viral infections that resolve without treament. Enteroviruses comprise 85 to 95 Percent of al viral meningitis including echoviruses and coxacie viruses Herpes viruses Epstien Bar virus "EBV" Cytomegalovirus "CMV" HIV Varicella zoster virus.


Can menigitis be present without fever?

Yes- in immune compromised individuals such as neonates, the elderly, or HIV/cancer chemotherapy patients one may see either little or no rise in body temperature, or actually a decrease in body temperature with overwhelming infection (usually sepsis but could be with meningitis, too.)The sina quo non of meningitis are "minengial irritation signs" -- headache, stiff neck, photophobia, +/- decreased level of consciousness (a late, ominous sign).That said - I have only seen one or two cases of suspected meningitis w/o fever.


Can bacterial menigitis leave any affects in later life?

I had bactirial meningitis at age 7, in 1950 and was treated with massive doses of penicillin. I survived! I suffered from severe migraines from about age 11 until about age 40. Was diagnosed with fibromialgia at 45. At age 68 I have pain in hips, knees lower legs and feet. I am taking a generic form of Neurontin which help with nerve pain. I just started taking it and noticed that it works but, it wears off and then I realise how difficult the pain was and is. I don't know if my physical problems were caused or made worse due to the meningitis. I,too, would like to know what health problems meningitis survivors have.


How is meningitis spread?

The menigitis virus hangs around in the back of your throat. It infects the saliva and the nasal passages. Here are possible ways to transmit the virus.-Sneezing (without covering)-Coughing (without covering)-Kissing-Sharing eating utensils-Sharing water bottles, pop bottles, etc.Meningitis can not be spread by breathing in the same air as an infected person or just by standing close to them.Disgusting but true fact: 10% of the World's population carries the meningitis virus without manifesting symptoms (Meaning they have the virus, but it doesn't make them sick. They can still pass it on to you, though).The moral of the story is...DON'T SHARE DRINKS OR EATING UTENSILS. YOU COULD PUT YOURSELF AT RISK.


Is meningitis contagious after antibiotic treatment?

Meningitis is contagious. It can be spread by coming into contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions. Small children who are not yet toilet trained and their caretakers may also spread the virus.Not everyone who is infected with meningitis will actually get the disease. Therefore, it is not always obvious when you are at risk for infection. When it comes to personal hygiene, common sense can help prevent the spread of viral meningitis. This may include:washing hands oftendisinfecting surfaces with chlorine bleach mixed with waterBecause viral menigitis is caused by the enterovirus, it is important to note that this virus is active in the summer and early fall.http://www.symptoms-of-meningitis.co.uk is a good site for meningitis information.


Is ciprofloxacin 500mg taran used for the treatment of cellulitis?

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Myelomeningocele?

DefinitionMyelomeningocele is a birth defect in which the backbone and spinal canal do not close before birth. The condition is a type of spina bifida.Alternative NamesSpina bifida; Cleft spineCauses, incidence, and risk factorsNormally, during the first month of a pregnancy, the two sides of the spine (or backbone) join together to cover the spinal cord, spinal nerves and meninges (the tissues covering the spinal cord). Spina bifida refers to any birth defect involving incomplete closure of the spine.Myelomeningocele is the most common type of spina bifida. It is a neural tube defect in which the bones of the spine do not completely form, resulting in an incomplete spinal canal. This causes the spinal cord and meninges (the tissues covering the spinal cord) to stick out of the child's back.Myelomeningocele may affect as many as 1 out of every 800 infants.The rest of myelomeningocele cases are most commonly:Spina bifida occulta, a condition in which the bones of the spine do not close but the spinal cord and meninges remain in place and skin usually covers the defectMeningoceles, a condition where the tissue covering the spinal cord sticks out of the spinal defect but the spinal cord remains in place.Other congenital disorders or birth defects may also be present in a child with myelomeningocele. Hydrocephalus may affect as many as 90% of children with myelomeningocele. Other disorders of the spinal cord or musculoskeletal system may be seen, including syringomyelia and hip dislocation.The cause of myelomeningocele is unknown. However, low levels of folic acid in a woman's body before and during early pregnancy is thought to play a part in this type of birth defect. The vitamin folic acid (or folate) is important for brain and spinal cord development.Also, if a child is born with myelomeningocele, future children in that family have a higher risk than the general population. However, in many cases, there is no family connection.Some theorize that a virus make play a role, since there is a higher rate of this condition in children born in the early winter months. Research also indicates possible environmental factors such as radiation.SymptomsA newborn may have a sac sticking out of the mid to lower back. The doctor cannot see through the sac when shining a light behind it. Symptoms include:Loss of bladder or bowel controlPartial or complete lack of sensationPartial or complete paralysis of the legsWeakness of the hips, legs, or feet of a newbornOther symptoms may include:Abnormal feet or legs, such as clubfootBuild up of fluid inside the skull (hydrocephalus)Hair at the back part of the pelvis called the sacral areaDimpling of the sacral areaSigns and testsPrenatal screening can help diagnose this condition. During the second trimester, pregnant women can have a blood test called the quadruple screen. This test screens for myelomeningocele, Down syndrome, and other congenital diseases in the baby. Most women carrying a baby with spina bifida will have a higher-than-normal levels of a protein called maternal alpha fetoprotein (AFP).If the quadruple screen test is positive, further testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Such tests may include:Pregnancy ultrasoundAmniocentesisMyelomeningocele can be seen after the child is born. A neurologic examination may show that the child has loss of nerve-related functions below the defect. For example, watching how the infant responds to pinpricks at various locations may reveal where he or she can feel the sensations.Tests done on the baby after birth may include x-rays, ultrasound, CT, or MRI of the spinal area.TreatmentGenetic counseling may be recommended. In some cases where severe defect is detected early in the pregnancy, a therapeutic abortion may be considered.After birth, surgery to repair the defect is usually recommended at an early age. Before surgery, the infant must be handled carefully to reduce damage to the exposed spinal cord. This may include special care and positioning, protective devices, and changes in the methods of handling, feeding, and bathing.Children who also have hydrocephalus may need a ventricular peritoneal shunt placed. This will help drain the extra fluid.Antibiotics may be used to treat or prevent infections such as meningitis or urinary tract infections.Most children will require lifelong treatment for problems that result from damage to the spinal cord and spinal nerves. This includes:Gentle downward pressure over the bladder may help drain the bladder. In severe cases, drainage tubes, called catheters, may be needed. Bowel training programs and a high fiber diet may improve bowel function.Orthopedic or physical therapy may be needed to treat musculoskeletal symptoms. Braces may be needed for muscle and joint problems.Neurological losses are treated according to the type and severity of function loss.Follow-up examinations generally continue throughout the child's life. These are done to check the child's developmental level and to treat any intellectual, neurological, or physical problems.Visiting nurses, social services, support groups, and local agencies can provide emotional support and assist with the care of a child with a myelomeningocele who has significant problems or limitations.Support GroupsSee: Spina bifida resourcesExpectations (prognosis)A myelomeningocele can usually be surgically corrected. With treatment, length of life is not severely affected. Neurological damage is often irreversible.New problems within the spinal cord can develop later in life, especially after the child begins growing rapidly during puberty. This can lead to more loss of function as well as orthopedic problems such as scoliosis, foot or ankle deformities, dislocated hips, and joint tightness or contractures.Many patients with myelomeningocele primarily use a wheelchair.ComplicationsDifficult delivery with problems resulting from a traumatic birth, including cerebral palsy and decreased oxygen to the brainFrequent urinary tract infectionsHydrocephalusLoss of bowel or bladder controlMeningitisPermanent weakness or paralysis of legsThis list may not be all inclusive.Calling your health care providerCall your health care provider if:A sac sticks out of the spine of a newborn infant.The child is late in walking or crawlingSymptoms of hydrocephalus develop, including bulging soft spot, irritability, extreme sleepiness, and feeding difficultiesSymptoms of menigitis develop, including fever, stiff neck, irritability, and a high-pitched cryPreventionFolic acid supplements may help reduce the risk of neural tube defects such as myelomeningocele. It is recommended that any woman considering becoming pregnant take 0.4 mg of folic acid a day. Pregnant women need 1 mg per day.It is important to remember that folic acid deficiencies must be corrected before becoming pregnant as the defects develop very early.Prospective mothers may be screened to determine the amount of folic acid in their blood.ReferencesKinsman SL, Johnston MV. Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 592.


What is Spinal Menigitis?

What is Spinal Meningitis?Meningitis is an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Non-bacterial meningitis is often referred to as "aseptic meningitis." Bacterial meningitis may be referred to as "purulent meningitis."Causes, incidence, and risk factorsThe most common causes of meningitis are viral infections that usually resolve without treatment. However, bacterial infections of the meninges are extremely serious illnesses, and may result in death or brain damage, even if treated. Meningitis is also caused by fungi, chemical irritation, drug allergies, and tumors. Types of Memingitis include:Meningitis - cryptococcalSyphilitic aseptic meningitisMeningitis - H. influenzaMeningitis - meningococcalMeningitis - pneumococcalMeningitis - staphylococcalMeningitis - tuberculosisAseptic meningitisMeningitis gram negativeCarcinomatous meningitis (meningitis due to cancer)Acute bacterial meningitis is a true medical emergency, and requires immediate hospital-based treatment. Bacterial strains that cause meningitis include Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides (meningococcus), Listeria monocytogenes, and many other types of bacteria. In the U.S. almost 20,000 cases of bacterial meningitis occur yearly.Viral Meningitis is milder and occurs more often than bacterial meningitis. It usually develops in the late summer and early fall, often affects children and adults under 30. Seventy percent of the infections occur in children under the age of 5. Most Viral Meningitis is associated with enteroviruses, which are viruses that commonly cause intestinal illness.However, many other types of viruses can also cause meningitis. For example, Viral Meningitis may occur as a complication in people with genital herpes. Recently, West Nile virus spread by mosquito bites has become a cause of Viral Meningitis in most of the U.S. In addition to causing Viral Meningitis, West Nile virus may cause encephalitis in some patients and a polio-like syndrome in others.Spinal Meningitis SymptomsFever and chillsSevere headacheNausea and vomitingStiff neck (meningismus)Sensitivity to light (photophobia)Mental status changesAdditional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:Decreased consciousnessRapid breathingAgitationOpisthotonos (severe neck stiffness, ultimately resulting in a characteristic arched posture-seen in infants or small children)Bulging fontanelles (the soft spots in a baby's skull may bulge)Poor feeding or irritability in childrenMeningitis is an important cause of fever in newborn children. For this reason, a lumbar puncture is often done on newborns who have a fever of uncertain origin.Signs and testsLumbar puncture with CSF glucose measurement and CSF cell countGram-stain and culture of CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)Chest x-ray to look for other sites of infectionHead CT scan looking for hydrocephalus, abscess or deep swellingTreatment of Spinal MeningitisAntibiotics will be prescribed for bacterial meningitis; the type will vary depending on the infecting organism. Antibiotics are not effective in Viral Meningitis. Treatment of secondary symptoms including brain swelling, shock, and seizures will require other medications and intravenous fluids. Hospitalization may be required depending on the severity of the illness and the needed treatment. Expectations (prognosis) of Spinal MeningitisEarly diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis is essential to prevent permanent neurological or spinal damage. Viral Meningitis is typically not so serious, and symptoms should disappear within 2-weeks with no residual complications. Complications of Spinal MeningitisHearing loss or deafnessBrain damageLoss of visionHydrocephalusCalling your health care providerIf you feel that you or your child have symptoms suggestive of meningitis, you must seek emergency medical help immediately. Early treatment is key to a good outcome. Prevention of Spinal MeningitisHaemophilus vaccine (HiB vaccine) in children will help prevent one type of meningitis. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is now a routine childhood immunization and is very effective at preventing Pneumococcal Meningitis. It's highly recommended household contacts and people with close contact with individuals with meningococcal meningitis receive preventative antibiotics to avoid becoming infected themselves.Some communities conduct vaccination campaigns following an outbreak of meningococcal meningitis. Military recruits are routinely vaccinated against this form of meningitis because of its high rate of occurrence.The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College Health Assn encourage college students (particularly freshmen living in dorms) to consider being vaccinated with the meningococcal vaccine.How to Deal with Spinal Meningitis?With the arrival of late summer and early fall Spinal Meningitis raises its ugly head to search for preys, its victims are often children below five and adults below thirty. Spinal Meningitis is a lay-term for inflammation of the meninges-membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. It affects the brain and spine simultaneously.Causes'Purulent Meningitis' refers to the infection caused by bacteria. 'Aseptic meningitis' is non bacterial meningitis- caused by virus, fungi, chemicals and tumors. SymptomsThe symptoms of both bacterial and non bacterial "spinal meningitis symptoms" are very similar. The onslaught of meningitis disease is preceded generally by a splitting headache, fever and chills, severe stiff neck, sensitivity to light, vomiting, loss of appetite, and sweating. Bacterial Meningitis may show some extra symptoms like mental status changes, Dementia, twitching, perturbation, skin rashes and protrusive soft skull spots in case of babies.DiagnosisIf you experience these symptoms seek medical attention right away. Delays can cause incurable secondary defects like blindness, deafness and brain damage or may be life threatening. Common meningitis disease diagnosis tools the doctor uses for spinal meningitis include a Lumbar Puncture to inspect cerebrospinal fluid, bacterial culture, chest X-ray and a CT scan of the brain to locate meningitis disease damage.Medical TreatmentBacterial Meningitis is treated with antibiotics administered orally first and then intraveinously. The earlier the disease is detected and treated the better will be the results. Although rarely seen, this form of Meningitis is more serious that than Viral Meningitis. Antibiotics can't cure Viral Meningitis. The disease usually resolves on its own. Secondary defects can be treated with intravenous fluids. Natural TreatmentGolden Seal is a natural tonic that strengthens the spinal nerves and prevents recurrence of spinal meningitis. Black Cohosh is good for spinal meningitis, but its use is unadvisable for pregnant women. Both these medicines should be taken only for short time periods. Prevention is always better than cure. Thanks to administration of drugs and vaccines like Haemophilus vaccine, Meningococcal vaccine and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine you can prevent some types of Spinal Meningitis.


Flu?

DefinitionThe flu is a contagious infection of the nose, throat, and lungs caused by the influenza virus.See also: Swine flu (H1N1)Alternative NamesInfluenza A; Influenza BCauses, incidence, and risk factorsIn temperate climates, influenza A usually arrives between early winter and early spring. Influenza B can appear at any time of the year.The most common way to catch the flu is by breathing in droplets from coughs or sneezes. Less often, it is spread when you touch a surface such as a faucet handle or phone that has the virus on it, and then touch your own mouth, nose, or eyes.Symptoms appear 1 - 7 days later (usually within 2 - 3 days). Because the flu spreads through the air and is very contagious, it often strikes a community all at once, causing an epidemic illness. This creates a cluster of school and work absences. Many students become sick within 2 or 3 weeks of the flu's arrival in a school.Tens of millions of people in the United States get the flu each year. Most get better within a week or two, but thousands become sick enough to be hospitalized. About 36,000 people die each year from complications of the flu.Sometimes people confuse colds and flu, which share some of the same symptoms and typically occur at the same time of the year. However, the two diseases are very different. Most people get a cold several times each year, and the flu only once every few years.People often use the term "stomach flu" to describe a viral illness where vomiting or diarrhea is the main symptom. This is incorrect, as the stomach symptoms are not caused by the flu virus. Flu infections are primarily respiratory infections.SymptomsThe flu usually begins abruptly, with a fever between 102 and 106 F. (An adult typically has a lower fever than a child.) The fever usually lasts for a day or two, but can last 5 days.Other common symptoms include:Body achesChillsDizzinessFlushed faceHeadacheLack of energyNauseaVomitingSomewhere between day 2 and day 4 of the illness, the "whole body" symptoms begin to subside, and respiratory symptoms begin to increase.The most prominent of the respiratory symptoms is usually a dry, hacking cough. Most people also develop a sore throat and headache. Runny nose (nasal discharge) and sneezing are common.These symptoms (except the cough) usually disappear within 4 - 7 days. Sometimes, the fever returns. The cough and tiredness usually last for weeks after the rest of the illness is over.Other symptoms may include:Loss of appetiteMuscle achesand stiffnessStuffy, congested noseSweatingWorsening of underlying illness, such as asthma or heart failureSigns and testsThe evaluation of an individual with flu symptoms should include a thorough physical exam and, in cases where pneumonia is suspected, a chest x-ray.Additional blood work may be needed. They may include a complete blood count, blood cultures, and sputum cultures.The most common method for diagnosing the flu is an antigen detection test, which is done by swabbing the nose and throat, then sending a sample to the laboratory for testing.The results of these tests can be available rapidly, and can help decide if specific treatment is appropriate. However, when flu is widespread in the community the diagnosis can often be made by simply identifying symptoms without further testing.TreatmentIf you have mild illness and are not at high risk, take these steps:RestTake medicines that relieve symptoms and help you restDrink plenty of liquidsAvoid aspirin (especially teens and children)Avoid alcohol and tobaccoAvoid antibiotics (unless necessary for another illness)Most people who get seasonal flu will likely recover without needing medical care. Doctors, however, can prescribe antiviral drugs to treat people who become very sick with the flu or who are at high risk for flu complications. Ask your provider if you are high risk when you receive your flu immunization.The main benefit of antiviral drugs is that they can shorten the time you have symptoms by about one day, but only if you start taking the medicine within 48 hours of when your symptoms began.If you need treatment, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that your doctor give you zanamivir (Relenza) or osteltamivir (Tamiflu).Children who are at risk of developing a severe case of the flu should also contact their provider for antiviral medication.Expectations (prognosis)Anyone at any age can have serious complications from the flu, but those at highest risk include:People over age 50Children between 6 months and 2 yearsWomen more than 3 months pregnant during the flu seasonAnyone living in a long-term care facilityAnyone with chronic heart, lung, or kidney conditions, diabetes, or a weakened immune systemIn most individuals who are otherwise healthy, the flu goes away within 7 to 10 days.ComplicationsPossible complications, especially for those at high risk, include:PneumoniaEncephalitis(infection of the brain)BronchitisSinus infectionsEar infectionsCalling your health care providerCall your health care provider if someone in a high-risk category develops symptoms of the flu, or if your illness seems severe.PreventionA yearly vaccine is recommended for children older than 6 months, adolescents, and adults.The vaccine is available as a flu shot or a nasal spray-type flu vaccine.For specific recommendations, see influenza vaccine.ReferencesHarper SA, Bradley JS, Englund JA, et al. Seasonal Influenza in Adults and Children - Diagnosis, Treatment, Chemoprophylaxis, and Institutional Outbreak Management: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009;48:1003-32.Committee on Infectious Diseases. Policy statement--recommendations for the prevention and treatment of influenza in children, 2009 -2010. Pediatrics. 2009 Oct;124(4):1216-26.Jefferson T, Jones M, Doshi P, Del Mar C. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009 Dec 8;339:b5106.Linder JA. Influenza. In: Rakel P, Bope ET, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2009. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 22.


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