The frequencies on which sonar is used vary widely. Human hearing is usually cited as ranging as from 20 cycles per second (Hertz) to 20,000 cycles per second. There are many sonars that use frequencies in the 20 to 20,000 Hertz range. In general, the sonars that are used for short range underwater applications operate on a slightly higher frequency than those that are designed to look over long distances. But there are a lot of sonars which use frequencies far outside the range of human hearing. Medical imaging is the most popular use of sonar. The range of frequencies used by these devices range from 2 million cycles per second to 18 million cycles per second. These frequencies are far above what humans can hear.
Though they both use SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) to navigate, submarines and marine mammals that use sonar are both very different in how they use it.Marine mammal sonar uses a much higher frequency than submarine active sonar systems transmit at. Also, submarines rarely use active sonar due to the fact it immediately gives away your location and range to an enemy. Marine mammals use their active sonar constantly to navigate through the water, communicate, and to find food, while passive sonar is the primary means of submarine navigation.Dolphin sonar sounds like a fast clicking sound, with occasional high frequency "squeals", similar to a dog toy, though at a much higher frequency range. The frequency is high enough that it must be demodulated by special equipment to a lower frequency to really hear it. Usually when submarines go to periscope depth, dolphins set off the torpedo warning alarms since their frequency is at a similar range. As a former Submarine Sonarman, I can also say that it also drives you nuts, especially when there's a whole group of them around the boat.
sonarthey use a sonarLIDAR or Sonara sonarSONAR sends out ultrasonic sounds to the bottom of the sea and analyses how they bounce backsonarSonar.with sonarby using soundwaves that create a image based off of the height of the objectBathymetric sonar and LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging).Side-scan sonarA sonar
Sonar (which stands for SOund NAvigation and Ranging) can be made to identify the object it pings on - if active sonar; if passive sonar, identify the object making the sound it picks up. The higher the frequency of the active sonar ping, the better the resolution - but the shorter the range. At higher resolutions, it is not hard for the sonar to identify the object it pings on. At lower frequencies, the range is greater but it is harder for the sonar to identify what is being pinged. Another benefit of active sonar is the range and direction of the target can be discerned. Passive sonar just listens to the ambient water. Identification of the sound source can be made if the frequencies of the target making the sound are known and identified in a database. One problem with passive sonar is that it is hard to know the range of the target making the sound, although the direction will be known. Water temperature and depth have a great effect on sonar, so this must be taken into account when calculating distance. Sonar is used in the Military, Geological Surveying, and the Medical field.
Some negative effects of sonar are that marine animals like whales and dolphins are being effected and not being able to use their sonar very well. It is proven that the reason whales "beach" is because the tests of low-frequency sonar's mess up the hearing of whales and make them lose their sense of direction.
Radar uses electromagnetic waves. Sonar use sound pressure waves (smaller in frequency than that of radar)and are usually known as acoustic waves. Radar mostly navigate through air. Sonar usually work through water. radar uses e.m waves that travels with speed of light. where as sonar uses acoustic waves that travels with speed of sound and speed depends on temperature,pressure and salinity of water.
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