What is the basic principle of microwave spectroscopy?

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atoms vibrate at particular frequencies, depending on their energy. If the energy of a particular atom has a vibration frequency in the microwave domain then you can know it's energy by measuring it's frequency by, Energy = plank's constant (times) frequency => E=h*f

In spectroscopy matter interacts with electromagnetic waves which are classified on the basis of their frequencies. e,g ultraviolet, infra red, x rays, radio waves and microwaves. Each category brings out specific changes in the molecule like in UV electronic transitions are observed and in IR vibrational changes are observed. These changes are observed when the energy requirement of the compound matches with the energy of the wave which can be calculated by the formula mentioned above.
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