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In one narrow sense, they are exactly synonymous. If you mean "communication by means of transmitted signals," then either word is fine; they are interchangeable. But that's all. Each word has shades of meaning that do not overlap. Transmittance is a word used in Physics that means "The ratio of the radiant energy transmitted to the total radiant energy incident on a given body." You can't use the word transmission in that sense. Further, the word transmission has another connotation: the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted." You should not substitute transmittance in that sense. And finally, the gearbox in your car is a transmission, not a transmittance.

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Q: What is the difference between 'transmittance' and 'transmission'?
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