What is the difference between non-ruminant animals and ruminant animals?
Non-ruminants are considered monogastrics because they have a simple stomach. They cannot regurgitate partly-digested matter and rechew it because it is not necessary; they do not have a large rumen nor are many such animals herbivorous (except hippos, rhinos, rabbits/hares and equines, for example). Almost all non-ruminant animals are omnivorous or carnivorous. Animals that are herbivorous and are non-ruminants have a functional cecum that is used to ferment the food that they have eaten once it passes through the stomach and small intestine. Such animals are called "hind-gut fermentors," and yet are still considered non-ruminants. Non-ruminants that are not hind-gut fermentors include all primates, canines, felines, bears, weasels, skunks, pigs, and a number of rodents.
Ruminants are animals which have a four-chambered stomach specially designed for digesting plant matter. No ruminant animals are carnivorous or omnivorous by nature because their stomachs are designed to digest coarse hard-to-break-down material being plants like grass, not protein, (which makes up meat) which is much easier to digest for the average animal, ruminant and non-ruminant alike. The names of the four chambers of a ruminant are called the Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum and Abomasum, each with a different "job," if you will, that is responsible for the complete digestion of coarse plant material. They regurgitate food--called "chewing the cud" The rumen acts tile a huge fermentation vat where additional essential amino acids and proteins are made by the bacteria in the rumen from the basic forages the animal has consumed. Ruminant animals are much more efficient in turning plant matter in to high-quality meat. Animals which are ruminants include all bovines, cervids (deer, moose, elk, etc,) goats, sheep, antelope, wildebeest and giraffes.
Camelids (camels, llamas and alpacas) do not fall into either
categories because they do not have a four-chambered stomach, but
are still fore-gut fermentors. They are not non-ruminants either
because they are still capable of "chewing the cud" just like true
ruminants are. These animals are called Pseudo-ruminants because
they are, essentially "false ruminants" due to the fact that they
lack the rumen, only having the reticulum, omasum and
Ruminants have 4 stomachs - rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Non-ruminants just have 1. The main difference is that the 4 stomachs allow the organism to digest cellulose (grass).
correction- ruminants only have one stomach but they have 4 compartments....
The similarities of a ruminant and a non-ruminant digestive system is that they all have only one stomach, and the same organs that make up the whole digestive system complex. The difference between a ruminant and a non-ruminant is that a ruminant has four chambers in that stomach and a non-ruminant has a simple stomach (one stomach comprising of one chamber).
A monogastric system (human, cats and dogs) consists of a single compartment stomach. A ruminant system (cattle, sheep) consists of a complex 4 chamber compartment stomach. Both use bile secreted by the liver and stored by the gall bladder while a nonruminant (rabbits, horses) system does not contain a gall bladder. A ruminant "stomach" consists of the rumen (largest compartment of the stomach where most of the fermentation occurs), the reticulum (some fermentation occurs here…
What are the similarities in desired grain quality between the use of grain for non-ruminant and ruminant feed?
Most grains that are fed to non-ruminants (like pigs and farm fowl) are very similar to those that are fed to cattle. Grains like corn, wheat and barley are commonly used as animal feed for all animals. It's what's added to the feed that makes it different for ruminant and non-ruminant animals. For instance, animal byproducts and bone meal can be fed to pigs and chickens, whereas for cows and sheep, it's strictly prohibited because…