What is the living material surrounding the outside of the nucleus?
directly sorrounding the nucleus is the nuclear envelope (the envelope can also be considered as part of the nucleus itself) however, sorrounding that is the cytoplasm, which contains organelles
The living materiel around the nucleus are its organelles, the closest being the nucleolus. The other "living materiel" that surrounds the nucleus are the mitochondria, lysosomes, the Golgi body and apparatus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane (or cell wall in plants), ribosomes, vacuoles, and the cytoplasm.
What is a characteristic of all living things and involves an increase in the amount of living material in an organism?
The nucleus of atoms is dense and hard. If it was possible to have half a teaspoon of nuclei only it would have a mass of around 400 million tons. The nucleus of an atom is hard and incredibly dense. The nucleus of a cell is made of living material so is not particularly hard. Liquid flows between the nucleus and the cell.
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes. ^^^^ Ok yes those are the groups, I'll explain how. Prokaryotes mean they have no nucleus in which they store genetic material. Eukaryotes are organisms that do store genetic material in their nucleus. Just remember, you are eukaryotic. That way you can never confuse the two.