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Cell Biology (cytology)

Cells are the building blocks of all life. Humans are multicellular beings. The study of cells in called cytology. Ask questions here about the structure and function of cells.

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Cell Biology (cytology)

How do plant cells differ from animal cells?

The main difference is that plant cells have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane. Animal cells only have a cell membrane.

More Details:

  1. Plant cells have cell walls, which support a rigid structure. These structures are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and a variety of other materials. An animal cell does not have this cell wall; With animal cells there is a diversity of shapes, though most are roughly spherical.
  2. Green Plant cells have chlorophyll, the light-absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. This pigment, which makes plants appear green, is contained in structures called chloroplasts(or more generally, plastids).
  3. Similarly, chlorophyll containing plant cells go through both photosynthesis and cellular respiration, while animal cells only go through cellular respiration.
  4. Plants cells have a large, central vacuole. While animal cells may have one or more small vacuoles, they do not take up the volume that the central vacuole does (up to 90% of the entire cell volume!). The vacuole stores water and ions, and may be used for storage of toxins.
  5. Animal cells have centrioles, cilia (unicelluar animal cell), and lysosomes.

They have different thing in them like the nucleus there are a number of different things.
They have different thing in them like the nucleus there are a number of different things.
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Microbiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

The cytoplasm is a semi fluid material surrounding organelles; site of many cellular reactions. The Cytoplasm offers support to the cell and speeds up inter-cellular travel. It allows the cell to take up 3-dimensional space and the cell's many organelles to "float" freely throughout. It also acts as a medium for transport inside the cell.

Cytoplasm is the homogeneous, generally clear jelly-like material that fills cells. The cytoplasm consists of cytosol and the cellular organelles, except the nucleus. The cytosol is made up of water, salts and organic molecules and many enzymes that catalyze reactions. The cytoplasm plays an important role in a cell, serving as a "molecular soup" in which the organelles are suspended and held together by a fatty membrane. It is found within the plasma membrane of a cell and surrounds the nuclear envelope and the cytoplasmic organelles.

The cytoplasm is a polar, aqueous substance, and thus it interacts with the polar internal layer of the cell membrane which gives the cell form. It functions as a solvent for all the proteins and compounds within the cell, and facilitates the transportation of substances from one part of a cell to another part of the cell. It is also a storage place for chemical substances indispensable to life. Vital metabolic reactions take place here, for example anaerobic glycolysis and protein synthesis.

The cytoplasm is where all the work in the cell is done. Nutrients are absorbed, transported, and processed within the cytoplasm. (can be found in both the plant and animal cell.) The cytoplasm also provides a physical structure for the cell.

The cytoplasm plays a mechanical role, i.e. (example) to maintain the shape, the consistency of the cell and to provide suspension to the organelles. It is also a storage place for chemical substances indispensable to life. Vital metabolicreactions take place here, for example anaerobicglycolysis and protein synthesis.

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Microbiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

Do animals cells have a cytoplasm?

Retroviral vectors are engineered to transfer and integrate target genetic material into the genomes of host cells. Retroviruses have several distinct advantages over other vectors, especially when permanent gene transfer is the preferred outcome.

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Microbiology
Biochemistry
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is the importance of the cytoplasm?

It is within the cytoplasm that most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways including Glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. cytoplasm is a part of the cell that holds the other organelles of the cell together.

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History, Politics & Society
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is the outer covering of the vacuole?

Vacuoles, organelles that are present in all plant and fungal cells as well as those of other organisms (animal, bacterium, protist), are closed compartments containing molecules enclosed by water. This organelle therefore serves many functions.

The primordial utricle and the tonoplast are examples of cytoplasm that is present around the vacuoles of plants.

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Microbiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

Is the central vacuole an organelle?

Yes. The central vacuole like any other structure in the cytoplasm is an organelle.

Other examples include the nucleus and mitochondria.

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Cell Biology (cytology)

Water moves in and out of cells through?

Water molecules move by osmosis through the cell membrane which is a selectively permeable membrane. Since the middle of the lipid bilayer is hydrophobic, the movement of water is made possible by water channels or aquaporins in the membrane.

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Biology
Biochemistry
Cell Biology (cytology)

What do glycolipids do?

Retroviruses have several distinct advantages over other vectors, especially when permanent gene transfer is the preferred outcome. Some disadvantages of retroviruses are that they can only transduce dividing cells, and that they integrate somewhat arbitrarily into genome which has the potential to lead to oncogenesis.

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Cell Biology (cytology)

Why do skin cells have mitochondria?

Mitochondria is a cell organelle which provides the cell with energy in the form of ATP ( Adenosine triphosphate ) molecules by performing the function of respiration. It is known as the powerhouse of the cell.

Hence, irrespective of any type of cell, mitochondria is present as the cell will not be able to perform basic functions without energy supply.

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Biology
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is a cell with a large nucleus?

White blood cells possess a large nucleus as compared to other cells .

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Cell Biology (cytology)

Why do cells give off waste?

Because most living organisms have the need to release waste products. The inability to excrete waste might cause toxic effects, inflammation and infection.

Cells engulf and separate chemical compounds to obtain their energy. The energy of the elements that once consisted the said chemical compound are already released and absorbed by the cell. The elements, therefore, lost their usefulness and would be a burden (extra mass means extra energy needed) if the cells carried them around. Also, if the cells did not release the said elements, the said elements will build up and occupy the spaces of the cell. The cell, then, would have its cytoplasm exploded, plasmolysis.

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Cell Biology (cytology)

What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?

The cytoskeleton provides shape and gives [mechanically] structural support. It also serves as a monorail to transport substances around the Cell;

Structural: It provides structural support to Cells and stabilizes the Desmosomes [Cell-Gap junctions];

Movement: It assists with cytosol streaming and internal Cell motility; It helps move organelles and materials throughout the Cell; and It helps with the movement of chromosomes during Cell division;

It is also responsible for providing the "structural Ladder" that the Enzyme Working Motors use for motility [this motility is used for Substance transport], and functions in the same way for Chromosomal Segregation.

The cytoskeleton is a web of proteins inside the cell. It acts as both a skeleton and a muscle. The cytoskeleton helps the cell keep its shape. It also helps some cells, such as bacteria, to move.

It DOES NOT help produce proteins! :)

The cytoskeleton is made up of intermediate filaments, microtubules, and microfilaments.

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Microbiology
Cell Biology (cytology)
Cell or Plasma Membranes

Why is the cell membrane not permeable?

Baculoviruses are arthropod-specific viruses containing large double-stranded circular DNA genomes of 80,000–180,000 bp. In recent years, they have been utilized for producing complex eukaryotic proteins in insect cell cultures.

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Botany or Plant Biology
Microbiology
Genetics
Cell Biology (cytology)

Who discovered cell wall and when?

Cell wall was discovered by Robert Hooke.

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Science
Cell Biology (cytology)

What are two types of monerans?

The term Monera relates to a group of organisms that include Archaea and Bacteria. These organisms have single cells and are without a nucleus inside. Their DNA is also loosely organized. This type of cell is known as a prokaryotic cell.

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Biology
Biochemistry
Cell Biology (cytology)

In what process are carrier proteins important?

Carrier proteins is important in facilitated diffusion. Facilitated diffusion transports molecules from one area of higher concentration on one side of the membrane to an area of lower concentration on the other side .Because the molecules are moving down their concentration gradient , facilitated diffusion is passive transport.

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Science
Cell Biology (cytology)

What are the three factors affecting the transport of substances through the cell?

i) active transport,

ii) passive transport, and

iii) diffusion.

Answer 2

Above given are processes of transport not factors .

Factors include 1: concentration gradient 2 : Temperature , 3 :Surface area .

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Biology
Genetics
Cell Biology (cytology)

What molecule carries instructions for making proteins?

In the nucleus of the cell you have the DNA; the big archive with all the instructions for the cell including the one to make each protein.

mRNA carries these instructions out of the cell nucleus to the ribosomes (the protein factories) where tRNA delivers the right amino acids to the ever growing chain to form the right protein as "written" on the mRNA.

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Biology
Biochemistry
Cell Biology (cytology)

How does alcohol affect the permeability of the cell membrane?

You have to be careful with this question, alcohol does not affect the permeability of the cell membrane. However alcohol increaces the rate of diffusion throught the cell membrane.

Answer 2

Alcohol dissolves lipids from cell membrane thus it increases permeability as it can be seen in case of Gram staining .

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Science
Cell Biology (cytology)

What an analogy for cell wall?

A good analogy for a cell wall is either a city wall which protects the city from attack and holds it together. or possibly a brick wall of a building. which supports the building, protects it from harsh elements and only allows materials to enter through certain entrances and exits.

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Biology
Cell Biology (cytology)

What two organelles are not seen in a cheek cell?

A human cheek cell contains the same organelles as any other mammal cell and just about the organelles of any animal. It doesn't have several organelles, but the two physical characteristics present in a plant cell but absent in an animal cell are the chloroplast and central vacuole.

The chloroplast carries out photosynthesis with its own set of DNA. The central vacuole contrasts with the many smaller vacuoles in an animal cell as the largest organelle in a plant cell. Vacuoles simply store fluids, most always water.

Cell Wall is also not found in animal cells.

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Biology
Genetics
Evolution
Cell Biology (cytology)

Where do you expect genetic differences between cells to arise from mitosis or from meiosis?

Genetic differences arise during meiosis due to crossing over , independent assortment/random segregation and genetic mutations, which result in variation.

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Microbiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is the purpose of the Golgi?

It packages things like proteins and other materials for transport and distribution either somewhere else inside the cell or sometimes out of the cell.

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History of Science
Genetics
Cell Biology (cytology)
Cell or Plasma Membranes

How was the cell discovered?

by a microscope by Robert Hooke

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Microbiology
Cell Biology (cytology)

What is the central vacuoles function?

The central vacuoles primary function is to transport water and minerals throughout each and every cell inside of a green plant.

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