What is the name of the subunit used to build DNA and RNA?
The name of the subunit used to build DNA and RNA is a nucleotide. Unlike DNA, RNA contains uracil. The nucleotide that is found in DNA is deoxyribose plus phosphate group plus cytosine.
May I ask you what is a subunit of a nucleic acid or are you implying that what is the composition of of that simple strand. If so then it is comprised of nitrogenous base, a phosphate, and also a sugar. Here is a simple example ; dna, it is comprised of guanine, thymine, cytosine, and adenine. Its sugar is deoxyribose, thus hence the name deoxyribonucleic acid .
The name of the DNA subunit is a nucleotide. There are three parts, there is a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group. The sugar is the pentose sugar known as deoxyribose (the D in DNA). The "deoxy" just means that it is "missing" an oxygen group compared ribose. The base is what makes up the "language" of DNA. There are four possible bases, adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. The phosphate and the sugar form…
Protein synthesis is a process which individual cells construct proteins. First, DNA is copied by RNA polymerase into messenger RNA. RNAP transcribes specific DNA sequences producing a RNA chain. The ribosomal subunit binds to an AUG codon to recruit a larger ribosomal subunit. Finally, protein synthesis occurs in a cavity within the ribosome.
The nucleotides used to build DNA are Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. For RNA, there is no Thymine; it is replaced with another nucleotide called Uracil. These are actually the names of the nitrogenous bases that nucleotides contain. A nucleotide is made up of a Deoxyribose Sugar, a Phosphate Molecule, and a Nitrogenous Base. We refer to them though by the name of their nitrogenous base.
The promoter region usually upstream of the structural gene tells transcription factors where to bind on the DNA. In RNA of prokaryotes, there is Shine-Dalgarno sequence that tells small ribosomal subunit where to bind on the mRNA. In RNA of eukaryote there Kozak sequence that tells small subunit where to bind on the mature messenger RNA.