Yes. Bikini Atoll (You may have heard of this famouis atoll) was populated till the US decided they wanted to test Nukes their and kicked the local population off in 1946. Sure, why not? People live on Wake and Midway Islands which are both atolls.
Bikini Atoll and Enewetak Atoll were used for nuclear testing because they were remote and isolated from populated areas, they are part of the Marshall Islands which the US gained control of after WW2, their population was small and easy to relocate, etc.