What is the proper salutation for a New York city judge?
Judges should be addressed, "your honor".
The city proper population of New York is about 8,250,000 while the metropolitan population is about 20,000,000. The following states have a population greater than that of New York City: California Texas New York Florida Illinois Pennsylvania Ohio Michigan Georgia North Carolina New Jersey Bolded states have a greater population than that of metropolitan New York (and city proper) while non-bolded is just greater than city proper.
Because that is its name, just as much as "New York" is. That's why the word "city" is capitalized. Because it's part of the name. The words "city" and "state" are added to New York City and New York State in order to differentiate between the two. Otherwise, people can get confused about which one you're referring to. The word "state" in New York State is capitalized, for the same reason the word "city" in…