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Ground Control Points, which are commonly referred to as "GCPs", allow images to be georeferenced to a higher degree of accuracy. Ground control points are locations on the earth which have been accurately surveyed for both their elevation and GPS location. Without these control points an images georeferencing is based solely off of the data from positioning hardware aboard the imager and a sensor model. In addition to the increased accuracy obtained by using GCPs, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) should be used so that you correct for elevation errors.

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Q: What is the significance of ground control points to the map to be geo-referenced?
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What happens if you use too many control points when georeferencing?

Using too many control points when georeferencing can lead to overfitting of the transformation model, causing distortion in the georeferenced data. This can result in inaccurate spatial positioning of the data and reduced overall accuracy of the georeferencing process. It is important to use an appropriate number of control points to balance accuracy with computational efficiency.


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