What qualifications does a vicar require?
Clergymen in the Church of England needed a degree of something comparable. I do not know though what it is.
This is a broad question. Depending on the license, the qualifications will vary. Some licenses would not require any qualifications. Some may require a fee, trade participation or business ownership. Others, may require a simple exam, and others may require certain amount of years of specific professional experience, or even recommendations. In other words, it all depends on the type of license you are applying for.
That completely depends on the department. All departments require you to be between the ages of 21-35 to get hired and you need to have at least a high school diploma. Most departments these days require at least 60 college credit hours. There are other qualifications such as no felony convictions, no domestic convictions, etc.