What were buildings made out of in the Middle Ages?

Many medieval buildings were made of stone. Dressed stone was used for churches, cathedrals, monasteries, castles, palaces, and manor houses. Field stone was used in some places for cottages.

In places where stone was unavailable, brick was used, even for castles.

Many buildings were made of timber construction with the open areas of the walls filled with wattle and daub. Wattle was woven sticks, and daub was a mixture of mud, straw, hair, fat, manure, and whatever else might be available that could make a long lasting material to cover the wattle. Sometimes the open areas were filled with stone and daub, and sometimes with brick.

In the north of Europe, log cabins were used.

In expensive buildings, floors were tile, dressed stone, or wood. In peasant cottages, floors were often dirt or stone.

Roofs were made of thatched straw or reeds, slate, tiles, split wood, or even thin slabs of stone.

Windows were glazed in expensive buildings. In inexpensive buildings, they were left unglazed, but might be closed with a shutter.

Chimneys were invented in the 12th century. Most heated buildings of the Middle Ages had a stone hearth or brazier in the middle of the largest room, and the smoke rose to a hole in the roof or high in a wall to escape. In an expensive house, the heated room was the great hall. In a peasant cottage, it was usually the only room.