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Q: When did Alexander Fleming marry Dr Amalia Koutsouri- Voureka?
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How many wives did Alexander Fleming have?

Two: Sarah (from 1915 to 1949) and Amalia (from 1953 to 1955).


What is the meaning of the name Amalia?

pretty and a nice friend


About Alexander Fleming?

Sir Alexander Fleming was born at Lochfield near Darvel in Ayrshire, Scotland on August 6th, 1881. He attended Louden Moor School, Darvel School, and Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London where he attended the Polytechnic. He spent four years in a shipping office before entering St. Mary's Medical School, London University. He qualified with distinction in 1906 and began research at St. Mary's under Sir Almroth Wright, a pioneer in vaccine therapy. He gained M.B., B.S., (London), with Gold Medal in 1908, and became a lecturer at St. Mary's until 1914. He served throughout World War I as a captain in the Army Medical Corps, being mentioned in dispatches, and in 1918 he returned to St.Mary's. He was elected Professor of the School in 1928 and Emeritus Professor of Bacteriology, University of London in 1948. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1943 and knighted in 1944.Early in his medical life, Fleming became interested in the natural bacterial action of the blood and in antiseptics. He was able to continue his studies throughout his military career and on demobilization he settled to work on antibacterial substances which would not be toxic to animal tissues. In 1921, he discovered in «tissues and secretions» an important bacteriolytic substance which he named Lysozyme. About this time, he devised sensitivity titration methods and assays in human blood and other body fluids, which he subsequently used for the titration of penicillin. In 1928, while working on influenza virus, he observed that mould had developed accidently on a staphylococcus culture plate and that the mould had created a bacteria-free circle around itself. He was inspired to further experiment and he found that a mould culture prevented growth of staphylococci, even when diluted 800 times. He named the active substance penicillin.Sir Alexander wrote numerous papers on bacteriology, immunology and chemotherapy, including original descriptions of lysozyme and penicillin. They have been published in medical and scientific journals.Fleming, a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (England), 1909, and a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (London), 1944, has gained many awards. They include Hunterian Professor (1919), Arris and Gale Lecturer (1929) and Honorary Gold Medal (1946) of the Royal College of Surgeons; Williams Julius Mickle Fellowship, University of London (1942); Charles Mickle Fellowship, University of Toronto (1944); John Scott Medal, City Guild of Philadelphia (1944); Cameron Prize, University of Edinburgh (1945); Moxon Medal, Royal College of Physicians (1945); Cutter Lecturer, Harvard University (1945); Albert Gold Medal, Royal Society of Arts (1946); Gold Medal, Royal Society of Medicine (1947); Medal for Merit, U.S.A. (1947); and the Grand Cross of Alphonse X the Wise, Spain (1948).He served as President of the Society for General Microbiology, he was a Member of the Pontifical Academy of Science and Honorary Member of almost all the medical and scientific societies of the world. He was Rector of Edinburgh University during 1951-1954, Freeman of many boroughs and cities and Honorary Chief Doy-gei-tau of the Kiowa tribe. He was also awarded doctorate, honoris causa, degrees of almost thirty European and American Universities.In 1915, Fleming married Sarah Marion McElroy of Killala, Ireland, who died in 1949. Their son is a general medical practitioner.Fleming married again in 1953, his bride was Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Voureka, a Greek colleague at St. Mary's.In his younger days he was a keen member of the Territorial Army and he served from 1900 to 1914 as a private in the London Scottish Regiment.Dr Fleming died on March 11th in 1955 and is buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.-xoxPookie


How did the conflict between Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo affect the Revolutionary Government?

Emilio Aguinaldo and Andres Bonifacio were friends. This is a fact glossed over in our history books like Historia:Pag-usbong, Pakikipag-tagpo at Pagbubuo by Prof. Raul Roland Sebastian and Dr. Amalia C. Rosales. Aguinaldo, a bachelor and the capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit), was induced into the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society founded by Bonifacio, the Katipunan Supremo. This was in March 1895, before Aguinaldo's twenty-sixth birthday (based on my report), in a house on Clavel Street, in Tondo, Manila. It was Santiago Alvarez, his bosom friend and son of Mariano Alvarez, capitan municipal of Noveleta, Cavite, who persuaded Aguinaldo, a mason, to join the Katipunan. Aguinaldo in turn persuaded Alvarez to join the Free masonry.According to the book that I have read, entitled "Katipunan: si Kuya Andres at Kuya Miong", Alvarez was the cousin of Gregoria de Jesus, wife of Bonifacio. He later became a general of the revolution. In the Katipunan, Aguinaldo, a deeply religious man, adopted the nom de guerre "Magdalo", after Mary Magdalene, the patroness of Kawit. Similarly, Aguinaldo's pseudonym in the Freemasonry was "Colon" after Christopher Columbus, who discovered America in 1492, (if I'm not mistaken).Aguinaldo's affiliation with Bonifacio's Katipunan was a godsend. A popular and charismatic capitan municipal, the highest elective post to which a native could aspire during the Spanish regime, Aguinaldo recruited many new members for the revolutionary society, including his close friend, Candido Tria Tirona, and his first cousin, Baldomero Aguinaldo, both of whom later became revolutionary generals and well-known Kawit residents like Santiago Daño, Canuto Encarnacion, and Tomas Aguinaldo. All were masons like Emilio Aguinaldo, who belonged to the principalia (According to my High School teacher), then the ruling class of each municipality in the country. But those people- peasants and workers- who could not be admitted into Freemasonry for lack of qualifications were nevertheless recruited by Aguinaldo in Katipunan.Bonifacio was naturally much delighted and gratified to learn about the recruitment of many members of the Katipunan in Cavite. Bonifacio himself congratulated Aguinaldo, saying the latter was able to sign up many Katipuneros because he was "such a good capitan municipal". Aguinaldo made periodic trips to Manila to personally report to Bonifacio on the rapid increase in membership of the Katipunan in Kawit and nearby towns. To express his appreciation for Aguinaldo's efforts, Bonifacio one day joined the energetic capitan municipal on his trip to Kawit and organized a Katipunan branch or chapter which the supremo called "Magdalo", at the same time designating Aguinaldo as president of the new chapter.I have read, "The Truth About Aguinaldo and Other Heroes" by Alfredo Saulo, I have learned that one day in June 1895, Bonifacio, accompanied by Dr. Pio Valenzuela and Katipunan secretary Teodoro Gonzales, went to Kawit a second time to set up the Magdalo Council which comprised several towns of Cavite. Because of its unusually large membership, the Magdalo Council was organized ahead of the Magdiwang Council in the neighboring town of Noveleta which was originally headed by Mariano Alvarez. The little-known but important historical fact is also glossed over by our historians, like what I've said a while ago. However, the Magdiwang Council of Alvarez had a much larger territory than Aguinaldo's Magdalo Council.In this connection, it is important to remember that the revolution in Cavite should not be confused with the Katipunan revolt led by Bonifacio. Following the discovery of the Katipunan on August 19, 1896, Bonifacio and his followers were forced to take to the field and, despite their lack of preparation, raised the standard of rebellion in Pugad Lawin on August 23. Based on my observation in many Filipino historians, one historian refers to this event as the "Cry of Pugad Lawin", but at least two more senior historians describe the incident as the "Cry of Balintawak" and say that it happened on August 26, not three days earlier as claimed by historian Agoncillo. Still other historians, Conrado Benitez and Teodoro M. Kalaw, call the incident the "Cry of Kangkong", for the water plant kangkong grew in the area. In contrast, there was only one "Cry of Cavite", and this took place in the towns of San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Noveleta, and Kawit on the same day, August 31, 1896, the day after the Katipunan revolt had fizzled out in the Battle of San Juan del Monte, in Morong (now Rizal) province.The error is that most historians regard the two armed uprisings against the Spanish regime as part of the Philippine Revolution. The truth is that these two incidents occurred in widely separated areas and were entirely independent of each other. The Katipunan uprising was purely a revolt- and an abortive one- by a few hundred men under the leadership of Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto, while that of Cavite involved thousands of people on the first and many more thousands on the succeeding days, weeks, and months. By sheer magnitude and intensity, the Cavite uprising was a full-blown revolution. Except for a narrow strip of land where the Spanish arsenal was located, the entire province of Cavite was liberated by the revolutionists in less than a week.The rebels in the Battle of San Juan were all Katipuneros. In the revolution at Cavite, however, the preponderant majority were non-Katipuneros- people who had probably never heard of the Katipunan before the uprising because it was secretly revolutionary society. They joined the armed struggle against the Spaniards purely out of patriotism. According to General Baldomero Aguinaldo, president of the Magdalo Council- or government-based in Imus, there were only about 300 Katipuneros in the province of Cavite. General Emilio Aguinaldo, however, estimated that there were about 500 Katipunan members in Cavite at the outbreak of the revolution. There is a lot of truth to the statement of historian Schumacher that the "Revolution in Cavite had outgrown the Katipunan and would cast it aside" (Based on the book of Teodoro M. Kalaw, that I have read during my report). In fact, the Cavite revolutionists forthwith rejected the Katipunan and set up the revolutionary government to carry on the struggle for national liberation and independence.Although its membership was well spread in many provinces, especially in Luzon, the Katipunan, because of poor military leadership, was able to put up only a one-week revolt, August 23 to 30, ending in a complete debacle: 153 Katipuneros killed and about 200 taken prisoner. The Katipunan uprising paled into insignificance when compared with earlier revolts. I talk to myself, like "Kagaya rin pala ito ng pag-aalsa nina Tamblot sa Bohol, Sumuroy sa Palapag,Samar, Andres Malong sa Pangasinan, Francisco Dagohoy sa Bohol, Diego Silang sa Ilocos, Juan dela Cruz Palaris sa Pangasinan, at Apolinario dela Cruz sa Tayabas, Ano ba naman yan!" Bonifacio fled to the hills of San Mateo and Montalban with absolutely no further chance of a successful comeback because the Katipunan in Manila and its environs had melted away. Bonifacio himself admitted that he had no followers left in the city.After the San Juan fiasco, the Katipunan went into oblivion, and Bonifacio himself was soon forgotten. The Spanish forces under Bernardo Echaluche did not bother to pursue him in the jungles of Morong, dismissing the remaining rebel force as of little military significance. It would take the passage of several years, long after the death of Bonifacio, before poet Fernando Ma, Guerrero, editor of El Renacimiento, started building the Bonifacio cult, extolling and magnifying his revolutionary achievements out of proportion to his actual deeds.I have also read the poem, in his long poem entitled "Andres Bonifacio: Founder of the Katipunan", included in his book of poems called Crisalidas, Guerrero lauds the Tondo hero. How could an abortive one-week Katipunan revolt bring about such "feats" resulting in a "glorious enunciation of a new dawn"? Only a poet whose feet are well above the ground can conjure such a fantasy.Had Bonifacio fled to Cavite after the Battle of San Juan and had General Echaluche pursued him there, the Katipunan revolt and the Cavite Revolution would have been joined. The Echaluche military action, under the modern theory of "hot pursuit", would have erased any distinction between the Katipunan and the Cavite struggles for freedom, merging them into one giant upheaval-the Philippine Revolution.But instead Bonifacio took the easiest but near-sighted step- he fled to the security of the jungles of Morong. He had lost all hope. His fighting days were over. He was therefore the most surprised man in the mountain redoubt when one day in December he received an invitation from the Magdiwang to go and visit his brother Katipuneros in the liberated province of Cavite. The invitation was written by Artemio Ricarte on the insistence of Mariano Alvarez.The Magdiwang invitation has been described as a "sheer act of malice" for the simple reason that no good purpose could be served by Bonifacio's presence in Cavite at that time. Having failed as a military leader, what advice could he give to the Caviteño revolutionists who had won their battles against Spaniards, driving them away in full of retreat and inactivity for the next several months while the Spaniards waited for reinforcements from Spain? On the other hand, Bonifacio's presence in Cavite might affect enemy attacks, keeping the Caviteños out of balance and unable to concentrate their efforts on the primordial task of strengthening their "Little Republic of Cavite".Bonifacio, having learned from bitter experience, declined the first two invitations from the Magdiwang. He said it would not be advisable for leaders of the revolution to be cooped up in a small place like Cavite. Should the leaders be trapped, captured, or killed by the enemy, he added, that would mean the end of the revolution. A sensible answer from a man who had tasted defeat. But the Magdiwang would not take no for an answer. A third invitation was sent to Bonifacio, and this time the latter accepted it. When I was read this book, I whisper that "Why? and Why is the answer of Bonifacio, this question deserves an in-depth study by historians. What made Bonifacio finally accept the invitation to visit Cavite? In the absence of any historical documents, one can make an educated guess."THE CLIMAX OF MY COMPILATIONIt is not true, as stated in nearly all history books being taught in our schools and colleges, that Bonifacio went to Cavite about mid-December 1896 to mediate the so-called conflict between the Magdalo and the Magdiwang Councils of the Katipunan in the province. Ricarte himself said that there was no such conflict before Bonifacio arrived in Cavite. In fact, the two councils were cooperating splendidly, helping each other in the struggle against the Spaniards. The conflict between the two factions occurred only after Bonifacio arrived there.One important event ignored by historians is the fact that the day after Bonifacio arrived in Cavite, he was elected "Haring Bayan" of the Magdalo Council or Government, replacing Mariano Alvarez, who was demoted to "Pangalawang Haring Bayan". This meant that Bonifacio, in openly identifying himself with the Magdiwang, forfeited whatever right he had,a s the Katipunan Supremo, to act as a mediator between the two councils.Bonifacio's election as Haring Bayan signaled the star of the Magdalo-Magdiwang conflict. The Magdiwang insisted on claiming the leadership of the revolution for two reasons (based on Nick Joaquin): (1) they were first to rise in arms in Cavite, capturing the tribunal of San Francisco de Malabon about 10 o'clock on the morning of August 31, 1896,a nd that of Noveleta about two hours later, and (2) they had a much larger territory under their control than did Magdalo.The Magdalo, on the other hand, justified their claim to leadership of the revolution by virtue of their almost daily encounters with the Spaniards, especially on the fronts of Zapote and Bacoor, which the enemy would have to conquer before they could reach the Magdalo capital of Imus. These encounters provided the Magdalo with more extensive experience in military combat, something which the Magdiwang, being located in the rear of the battle zone, did not acquire, except from one encounter in Dalahikan on November 9-11, 1896.Another factor which weighed heavily in favor of the Magdalo was the presence of their brave and dashing jafe abanderado, Emilio Aguinaldo. When Bonifacio arrived in Cavite, Aguinaldo had defeated the best of the Spanish generals- Ernesto de Aguirre and Ramon Blanco- thus raising himself to the rank of a world military figure. His name had become a byword in Europe and the Latin-America countries which had previously liberated themselves from Spanish rule. Writing from London, Dr. Antonio Ma, Regidor, a Filipino exiled in 1872, stated that "Aguinaldo had acquired a reputation and a name in Europe". Because of his spectacular military victories against the Spaniards, Aguinaldo had become a living legend in Cavite. Based on my conclusion, one educated guess, based on the sequence of historical events, is that Bonifacio finally accepted the invitation to visit Cavite with the idea of wresting the leadership of the revolution from the Magdalo under their victorious military commander, Aguinaldo. In other words, the Magdiwang invited Bonifacio, the Katipunan Supremo, in order to pit against Aguinaldo, an ordinary Katipunero.Another educated guess is that Bonifacio had been offered a kingdom in Cavite. That the Tondo hero wanted to be a king might be adduced from his own behavior when he arrived in Cavite. Historian Agoncillo describes Bonifacio's arrival in Cavite in these words: "With his wife and two borothers, Ciriaco and Procopio, Bonifacio left for Cavite about the middle of December 1896. Aguinaldo, Candido Tria Tirona ( a historical error because he had been killed in the Battle of Binakayan on November 10, 1896) and Edilberto Evangelista were on hand to meet the supremo and his entourage in Zapote. It was at this preliminary meeting that a misunderstanding arose between Magdalo leaders and Bonifacio, for the former, rightly or wrongly, saw from Bonifacio's gestures and behavior that he regarded himself superior and "acting as if he were a king".Bonifacio's subsequent election as Haring Bayan of the Magdiwang proved his ambition to kingship and, on the other hand, disproved the contention of many historians that Bonifacio had come to Cavite to mediate the Magdalo-Magdiwang conflict.


Related questions

Who was Sir Alexander Fleming married to?

First to Sarah Marion McElroy, with whom he had a son called Robert, then to Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas.


What are facts about Alexander Fleming?

born:1881 died:1955 prize: nobel prize discovered:bacteria killer married:Sarah Marion and Dr Amalia Koutsouri


Did Fleming Alexander have a family?

Alexander Fleming was one of eight surviving children. His father died when he was seven. Fleming married Sarah Marion McElroy in 1915. They had one son together. Sarah died in 1949, and Fleming married Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas in 1953.


What was Alexander's wife called?

Alexander Fleming's wife was called Sarah Marion McElroy and Dr. Amalia Vourekas.


When was Amalia Fleming born?

Amalia Fleming was born in 1909.


What was alexander Flemings wife called?

Alexander Fleming's wife was called Sarah Marion McElroy and Dr. Amalia Vourekas.


How many wives did Alexander Fleming have?

Two: Sarah (from 1915 to 1949) and Amalia (from 1953 to 1955).


When was Amaryllis Knight born?

Amaryllis Fleming was born on December 10, 1925.


Who is next in line for the dutch throne?

Prince Willem-Alexander who is married with princess Maxima and they have three children: Amalia, Alexia and Ariane.


Is amalia awesome?

Amalia is awesome.


What is the birth name of Amalia Aguilar?

Amalia Aguilar's birth name is Rodriguez Carriera, Amalia.


What is the birth name of Amalia Mendoza?

Amalia Mendoza's birth name is Amalia Mendoza Garca.