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Scientists

This category is for questions about the people who apply the scientific method to solve problems, introduce new concepts, and strive to explain the natural world.

25,379 Questions
Science
Scientists

What is the scientific attitude and what attitudes and characteristics define a good scientist?

A good scientist should possess the following qualities:

1. A scientist must be curious about the world Example: Galileo Galileo's curiosity about the heavenly bodies made him the first person to use a telescope to study the moon, the sun, the planets and the stars.

2. A scientist is logical and systematic Example: Among the reasons why Gregor Mendel discovered the principles of heredity when others have failed was his logical experimental methods and his careful and accurate record keeping.

3. A scientist is open-minded and free of bias Example: An open-minded person is one who can modify plans or discard hypotheses if necessary. One such person was Johannes Kepler who was hired to develop evidence that planets moved along perfect circles.

4. A scientist is intellectually honest Example: Isaac Newton built his laws of motion on the previous work of Galileo and others.

5. A scientist works hard and is persistent Example: Marie Curie was the first person ever to be awarded the Nobel Prize twice. It was not surprising considering how hard she worked.

6. A scientist does not jump to conclusions Example: John Dalton's atomic theory was backed by experimental evidence. He was not the first to propose that the atom was the smallest particle of matter, but he was the first to use experimental evidence to support his theory.

7. A scientist is a creative and critical thinkerExample: Albert Einstein was able to derive his theory of relativity because he went beyond what was given and known at that time. He saw links and connections where others did not. He looked at things from different perspectives.

8. A scientist is rational

9. A scientist is willing to suspend judgment until he is sure of his results

10. A scientist tries new approaches to arrive at solutions

In addition:

A scientist must have an open mind and be curious. It is fine to have an idea about how or why something is the way it is, but the scientist should then seek to prove or disprove this "hypothesis" and should then be willing to change their ideas depending on the results of their experiments, rather than to continue believing in their original idea even if the evidence of their experiments is sticking up against it. 1.Keen Observer 2.creative 3.patient 4.curious 5.humble 6.intellectually honest 7.objective 8.Aware of the limitations of Science 9.Persevering 10.Open minded

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Philippines
Scientists

Who are some famous Filipino scientists and what are their contributions to science?

Just a few of the many Filipino men and women who have contributed to the various fields of science are listed here:

Eduardo San Juan- astronomy - helped invent the Lunar Rover

Charle Mar Abelo- zoologist - contributed to the study of animals

Jezrel Canlas- botany - contributed to the study of plants

Jose Cruz- electrical engineering

Emerito de Guzman- worked on the growth and development in vitro fertilization of the makapuno coconut embryo

Caferiono Follosco- Electrical and Agricultural Engineering

Francisco Fronda H- aided in the development of the poultry industry, not only in the Philippines but in Asia

Angel L. Lazaro III- Civil Engineer and Environmental Planner

Dr. Salcedo- biochemistry, nutrition, physiology

Gregario Velasquez- pioneered Philippine psychology and made the first intensive study of Myxophyceae or blue-green algae

Teodula MTopacio Jr- worked with leptospiral disease of domesticated animals

Joventino Soriano- contributed to the work on plant cytogenetics and mutations

Angel Alcala- is behind the invention of artificial coral reefs used for fisheries in Southeast Asia.

Arturo Alcaraz- is a volcanologist specializing in geothermal energy development.

Benjamin Almeda- designed a food-processing machine.

Julian Banzon- researched methods of producing alternative fuels.

Ramon Barba- invented practical flower induction treatments.

Doctor Benjamin Cabrera -has developed innovations in drug treatments against diseases caused by mosquitoes and agricultural soil.

Paulo Campos- built the first radioisotope laboratory in the Philippines.

Magdalena Cantoria- is a noted Filipino botanist.

Josefino Comiso- Filipino Physicist has been warning the world about global warming.

Doctor Lourdes Cruz- has made scientific contributions to the biochemistry field of conotoxins.

Rolando De La Cruz- Filipino scientist invented an anti cancer skin cream.

Emerita De Guzman- researched the propagation of pure makapuno trees.

Doctor Fe Del Mundo- credited with studies leading to the invention of an improved incubator and a jaundice relieving device.

Anacleto Del Rosario- Filipino chemist won the first prize at the World Fair in Paris in 1881

Ernesto Del Rosario- is Filipino chemist best known for his achievements in biotechnology and applied physical chemistry.

Roberto Del Rosario- is the inventor of the Karaoke Sing Along System.

Daniel Dingel- claims to have invented a water-powered car.

Pedro Escuro- is best known for his isolation of nine rice varieties.

Agapito Flores- has been acclaimed by some as being the inventor of the first fluorescent lamp

Pedro Flores- was the first person to manufactured the yo-yo in the United States.

Francisco Fronda- is know as the Father of poultry science in the Philippines.

Carmen Intengan- Food and nutrition researcher a pioneer that helped improve the Filipino diet.

Amando Kapauan- Filipino chemist who specialized in environmental chemistry

Hilario Lara- helped establish the National Research Council of the Philippines

Felix Maramba- built a coconut oil-fueled power generator

Luz Oliveros Belardo- researched the phytochemical properties of plants in the Philippines for natural products

Maria Orosa- Pioneering food inventor invented Calamansi Nip and Soyalac

William Padolina- has served as the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology for the Philippines

Eduardo Quisumbing- was a noted expert in the medicinal plants of the Philippines

Francisco Quisumbing- invented Quink ink

Dolores Ramirez- promoted the development of genetics in the Philippines

Jose Rodriguez- noted Filipino scientist and researcher who has invented methods of controlling leprosy

Eduardo San Juan- worked on the team that invented the Lunar Rover or Moon Buggy

Alfredo Santos- noted researcher in the chemistry of natural products

Francisco Santos- studied the nutritional problems associated with the Filipino diet

Carmen Velasquez- was a noted Filipino biologist.

Gregorio Zara- discovered the physical law of electrical kinetic resistance called the Zara effect

Prescillano Zamora- is best known for his research in plant anatomy-morphology including the taxonomy of Philippine ferns and the discovery of more fern species

Click on the related questions below for Filipino scientists in the specific areas of Biology, Physics, and Chemistry.

Click on the link below for a full list of famous Filipino scientists.

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Meteorology and Weather
Scientists
Meteorologists

What are scientists who study weather called?

  • Atmospheric Scientists study weather, ozone, climate change and pollution of the atmosphere.
  • Climatologists study climates.
  • Meteorologists study the atmosphere and weather.
  • Operational Meteorologists forecast the weather.
  • Physical Meteorologists study the properties of the atmosphere, the transmission of light, sound and radio waves, and the factors that affect the formation of weather.
  • Synoptic Meteorologists develop new tools for forecasting weather.

Meteorologists study the weather.
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Isaac Newton
Scientists

What experiment did Isaac Newton do in 1665?

The prism experiment.

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Biology
Scientists

Who had a theory of tropisms?

Jacques Loeb

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Depression and Bipolar Disorder
Philosophy and Philosophers
Ecosystems
Scientists

What do you do if you really hate your life and you cry everyday and want someone to talk to and seriously think about ending your life?

Most of these answers are only being said so that the writers feel good about themselves. Listen closely.

I have depression too, and there are seriously times when I am 100% prepared to END it. What stops me? My brother. Focus on your loved ones. Think of how much they would suffer if you left.

Your skin isn't paper, don't cut it.

Your smile isn't a sneeze, don't cover it.

Your are not a book, don't judge yourself by your cover

And most importantly, your life isn't a film. Don't end it.

I hope this answer encouraged you to at least try to get some help. I hate therapists, so I am personally stuck, so whatever I can do to help you or anyone else is important to me. Stay strong.

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History, Politics & Society
Books and Literature
Scientists

Where did Kitab al Manazir live?

Kitab al manazir is the name of a book written by Ibn al-Haytham (also known as Alhazen) who wrote his book while in captivity in Cairo, Egypt. He was an Iraqi. The book is also known as "Thesaurus optica."

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Scientists

Who first coined the word satellite?

Satellite comes via French satellite from Latin satelles 'attendant,escort', which itself probably went back to Etruscan satnal. Its use for a 'body orbiting a planet' is first recorded in English in 1665, and comes from the astronomer Johannes Kepler's application of Latin satelles to the moons of Jupiter.

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Religion & Spirituality
Philosophy and Philosophers
History of Science
Math History
Scientists
Mathematicians
René Descartes

Why did René Descartes believe in god?

One of his reasons for believing in god is that he knows (or thinks) that God is perfect. Since perfection includes existence, he therefore assumes that God must exist.

Answer:

Descartes made a series of increasingly unsupportable suppositions to back up his beleief in God:

1. I exist (A supportable statement for an individual - Cogito ergo sum)

2. I have in my mind the notion of a perfect being (The idea that anyone can develop an idea of a perfect being is not provable. The Aztec may have thoght their bloodthirsty gods perfect as well)

3. An imperfect being, like myself, cannot think up the notion of a perfect being (There is no proof although it is believable that humans are not perfect and it is debatable if the idea he has of a perfect being is indeed perfect)

4. Therefore the notion of a perfect being must have originated from the perfect being himself (This is a flight of fancy)

5. A perfect being would not be perfect if it did not exist (Buddhists, for example see perfection in the loss of being)

6. Therefore a perfect being must exist (This does not follow from any of the above statements)

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Math and Arithmetic
Medical Technologies
Scientists

Where did Rene Laennec die?

In the year 1826. He died in Ploaré, France. (Please see the link.)

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Science
Scientists
Alexander Fleming

Why did Alexander Fleming become so famous?

Alexander Fleming is famous for discovering the usefulness of penicillin as an antibacterial agent

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Jokes and Riddles
Algebra
Scientists
Candy

What were the headlines after a mad scientist trained two eggs to attack a candy store with sharp sticks?

eggs spear a mint
Eggs spear a mint no spaces

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Planetary Science
Scientists
The Solar System

Who was the Greek astronomer that argued that the sun was much larger than the earth and that the planets revolve around the sun?

Aristarchus of Samos was the Greek astronomer who argued that the Sun was larger than Earth and that the planets revolve around it.

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Philippines
Scientists

Who are some Filipino scientists and their discoveries?

The following Filipino scientists are the winners of the National Scientist of the Philippines Award.

  • Juan Salcedo Jr. (1978)
  • Alfredo Santos (1978)
  • Gregorio Zara (1978)
  • Fe del Mundo (1980)
  • Eduardo Quisumbing (1980)
  • Geminiano de Ocampo (1982)
  • Casimito del Rosario (1982)
  • Gregorio Velasquez (1982)
  • Francisco Fronda (1983)
  • Francisco Santos (1983)
  • Carmen Velasquez (1983)
  • Hilario Lara (1985)
  • Teodoro Agoncillo (1985)
  • Encarnacion Alzona (1985)
  • Julian Banzon (1986)
  • Dioscoro Umali (1986)
  • Luz Oliveros-Belardo (1987)
  • Jose Encarnacion, Jr. (1987)
  • Alfredo Lagmay (1988)
  • Paulo Campos (1989)
  • Pedro Escuro (1994)
  • Clara Lim-Sylianco (1994)
  • Dolores Ramirez (1998)
  • Jose R. Velasco (1998)
  • Gelia Castillo (1999)
  • Bienvenido Juliano (2000)
  • Clare Baltazar (2001)
  • Benito Vergara (2001)
  • Onofre Corpuz (2004)
  • Ricardo Lantican (2005)
  • Lourdes Cruz (2006)

Arturo Alcaraz

Arturo Alcaraz is a volcanologist specializing in geothermal energy development.

Benjamin Almeda

Benjamin Almeda designed a food-processing machine.

Julian Banzon

Julian Banzon researched methods of producing alternative fuels.

Ramon Barba

Ramon Barba invented practical flower induction treatments.

Benjamin Cabrera

Doctor Benjamin Cabrera has developed innovations in drug treatments against diseases caused by mosquitoes and agricultural soil.

Paulo Campos

Paulo Campos built the first radioisotope laboratory in the Philippines.

Magdalena Cantoria

Magdalena Cantoria is a noted Filipino botanist.

Josefino Comiso - Filipino Physicist

Filipino Physicist Josefino Comiso has been warning the world about global warming.

Lourdes Cruz

Doctor Lourdes Cruz has made scientific contributions to the biochemistry field of conotoxins.

Rolando De La Cruz - Filipino Scientist

Filipino scientist Rolando De La Cruz invented an anti cancer skin cream.

Emerita De Guzman

Filipino scientist Emerita De Guzman researched the propagation of pure makapuno trees.

Fe Del Mundo - Filipino Doctor

Doctor Fe Del Mundo is credited with studies leading to the invention of an improved incubator and a jaundice relieving device.

Anacleto Del Rosario - Filipino Chemist

Filipino chemist Anacleto Del Rosario won the first prize at the World Fair in Paris in 1881

Ernesto Del Rosario - Filipino Chemist

Filipino chemist Ernesto Del Rosario is best known for his achievements in biotechnology and applied physical chemistry.

Roberto Del Rosario - Filipino Inventor

Roberto Del Rosario is the inventor of the Karaoke Sing Along System.

Daniel Dingel - Filipino Inventor

Daniel Dingel claims to have invented a water-powered car.

Pedro Escuro

Filipino scientist, Pedro Escuro is best known for his isolation of nine rice varieties.

Agapito Flores - Filipino Scientist

Agapito Flores has been acclaimed by some as being the inventor of the first fluorescent lamp - is this true?

Pedro Flores

Pedro Flores was the first person to manufactured the yo-yo in the United States.

Francisco Fronda

Francisco Fronda is know as the Father of poultry science in the Philippines.

Carmen Intengan

Food and nutrition researcher Carmen Intengan was a pioneer that helped improve the Filipino diet.

Amando Kapauan - Filipino Chemist

Amando Kapauan was a Filipino chemist who specialized in environmental chemistry.

Hilario Lara

Hilario Lara helped establish the National Research Council of the Philippines.

Felix Maramba

Felix Maramba built a coconut oil-fueled power generator.

Luz Oliveros Belardo - Filipino Chemist

Filipino chemist, Luz Oliveros Belardo researched the phytochemical properties of plants in the Philippines for natural products

Maria Orosa - Filipino Inventor

Pioneering food inventor Maria Orosa - aka Maria Y Orosa - invented Calamansi Nip and Soyalac.

William Padolina

William Padolina has served as the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology for the Philippines.

Eduardo Quisumbing

Eduardo Quisumbing was a noted expert in the medicinal plants of the Philippines.

Francisco Quisumbing

Filipino chemist Francisco Quisumbing invented Quink ink.

Dolores Ramirez

Dolores Ramirez promoted the development of genetics in the Philippines.

Jose Rodriguez

Jose Rodriguez is a noted Filipino scientist and researcher who has invented methods of controlling leprosy.

Eduardo San Juan

Eduardo San Juan worked on the team that invented the Lunar Rover or Moon Buggy.

Alfredo Santos

Filipino chemist Alfredo Santos is a noted researcher in the chemistry of natural products.

Francisco Santos - Filipino Chemist

Filipino Chemist Francisco Santos studied the nutritional problems associated with the Filipino diet.

Gregorio Velasque

Filipino scientist, Gregorio Velasque made intensive studies of bluegreen algae.

Carmen Velasquez was a noted Filipino biologist.

Gregorio Zara - famous Filipino scientist Gregorio Y Zara

Prescillano Zamora - best known for his research in plant anatomy-morphology including the taxonomy of Philippine ferns and the discovery of more fern species.

Famous Filipino Scientists

Just a few of the many who have contributed to the various fields of science:

Felix Maramba - built a coconut oil-fueled power generator

Eduardo San Juan - astronomy - helped invent the Lunar Rover

Charle Mar Abelo - zoologist - study about animals

Jezrel Canlas - botany - study about plants

Jose Cruz- electrical engineering

Emerito de Guzman -work on the growth and development in vitro of the makapuno coconut embryo

Caferiono Follosco - Electrical and Agricultural Engineering.

Francisco Fronda H development of poultry industry not only in the Philippines but in the Asia region too.

Angel L. Lazaro III -Civil Engineer and Environmental Planner

Dr. Salcedo biochemistry, nutrition, physiology.

Gregario Velasquez -pioneered Philippine phycology and made the first intensive study of Myxophyceae or bluegreen algae

Teodula MTopacio Jr -leptospiral disease of domistecated animals

Joventino Soriano - plant cytogenetics and mutations

Angel Alcala is behind the invention of artificial coral reefs used for fisheries in Southeast Asia.

Arturo Alcaraz is a volcanologist specializing in geothermal energy development.

Benjamin Almeda designed a food-processing machine.

Julian Banzon researched methods of producing alternative fuels.

Ramon Barba invented practical flower induction treatments.

Doctor Benjamin Cabrera has developed innovations in drug treatments against diseases caused by mosquitoes and agricultural soil.

Paulo Campos built the first radioisotope laboratory in the Philippines.

Magdalena Cantoria is a noted Filipino botanist.

Josefino Comiso Filipino Physicist has been warning the world about global warming.

Doctor Lourdes Cruz has made scientific contributions to the biochemistry field of conotoxins.

Rolando De La Cruz Filipino scientist invented an anti cancer skin cream.

Emerita De Guzman researched the propagation of pure makapuno trees.

Doctor Fe Del Mundo is credited with studies leading to the invention of an improved incubator and a jaundice relieving device.

Anacleto Del Rosario Filipino chemist won the first prize at the World Fair in Paris in 1881

Ernesto Del Rosario is Filipino chemist best known for his achievements in biotechnology and applied physical chemistry.

Roberto Del Rosario is the inventor of the Karaoke Sing Along System.

Daniel Dingel claims to have invented a water-powered car.

Pedro Escuro is best known for his isolation of nine rice varieties.

Agapito Flores has been acclaimed by some as being the inventor of the first fluorescent lamp

Pedro Flores was the first person to manufactured the yo-yo in the United States.

Francisco Fronda is know as the Father of poultry science in the Philippines.

Carmen Intengan - Food and nutrition researcher a pioneer that helped improve the Filipino diet.

Amando Kapauan was a Filipino chemist who specialized in environmental chemistry.

Hilario Lara helped establish the National Research Council of the Philippines.

Felix Maramba built a coconut oil-fueled power generator.

Luz Oliveros Belardo researched the phytochemical properties of plants in the Philippines for natural products

Maria Orosa - Pioneering food inventor invented Calamansi Nip and Soyalac.

William Padolina has served as the Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology for the Philippines.

Eduardo Quisumbing was a noted expert in the medicinal plants of the Philippines.

Francisco Quisumbing invented Quink ink.

Dolores Ramirez promoted the development of genetics in the Philippines.

Jose Rodriguez is a noted Filipino scientist and researcher who has invented methods of controlling leprosy.

Eduardo San Juan worked on the team that invented the Lunar Rover or Moon Buggy.

Alfredo Santos is a noted researcher in the chemistry of natural products.

Francisco Santos studied the nutritional problems associated with the Filipino diet.

Carmen Velasquez was a noted Filipino biologist.

Gregorio Zara - discovered the physical law of electrical kinetic resistance called the Zara effect

Prescillano Zamora - is best known for his research in plant anatomy-morphology including the taxonomy of Philippine ferns and the discovery of more fern species.

Click on the related questions for Filipino scientists in the specific areas of Biology, Physics, and Chemistry.

Click on the link below for a full list of famous Filipino scientists from about.com.

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Scientists

What is Jonas Salk's favorite subject?

Jonas Salk's subject was virology and epidemiology,

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Scientists
Nikola Tesla

What were Nikola Tesla's last words?

"Let the future tell the truth, and Evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishments. The present is theirs. The future, for which I have really worked, is mine"

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Thomas Edison
Scientists
Nikola Tesla

Why did Nikola Tesla leave Thomas Edison?

Edison was working on an direct current motor when Tesla began working for him. He couldn't make it work properly and he offered 50 thoundands dollars if he could fix the machine. That was a easy job for Tesla. Once he finished it, Edison took the offer back stating that it was a joke. Tesla took off inmediatly. The next thing Edison did, he took the patent for the direct current motor.

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Scientists

Why do scientists consider a hypothesis valuable?

Any idea about how an unknown phenomenon occurs, or a simpler explanation for a known one, is useful in figuring out what exactly makes it happen. If it works, it can be tested and refined to provide a better explanation; if not, it OS one further things we know doesn't work.

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Physics
Scientists
Quantum Mechanics
Time Travel

What type of physicist studies time travel?

Theoretical physicist more than likely.

As far as time travel I fear physicists have already discovered what is worth to be know. Travel towards future is in principle possible. It is sufficient to move with a speed near the light speed with respect to the starting inertial reference (the earth for one of us).

The relativistic phenomenon of time compression provoke the time to pass much slower for the traveler with respect to the persons remaining in the "fixed" reference.

When the traveler returns in the initial reference (the earth in our example) he effectively traveled towards the future.

Unfortunately, travel towards the past is effectively impossible due to the causal nature of the laws of physics. As a matter of fact, reversing the time in only one phenomenon (the travel of our traveler in this case) violate the essential law of relativity that causal order has to survive between events happening in the same point of the space. Thus it is simply impossible.

(look, I'm not going to retype his entire response but: e-mc^2 thus a particle with a negative mass will go at a negative velocity and thus backwards in time. such particles are thought to be possible (at least not counted out yet) there are also a million other ways that intelligent forces can bypass naturally unbreakable laws such as wormhole's, however improbable they may be, given infinite time and flexible enough conditions anything is possible. so go ahead and become a theoretical physicist and prove this guy wrong.)

This renders traveling to future quite unattractive: It is impossible to return from such a travel.

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Earthquakes
Plate Tectonics
Scientists

How has technology help scientists explore earth?

Lots of ways. One example is that scientists have shot semantic waves through Earths layers to find out how much velocity each layer has.

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Air Pollution
Ozone Layer
Scientists

What is the definition of ozone layer?

Brief answer:

The ozone layer is a thin layer of ozone that protects the earth from dangerous ultraviolet light. When the layer is thin or damaged this ultraviolet radiation can cause eye cataracts, skin cancers and damage to crops.

More detail:

The ozone layer is a region high in the stratosphere, containing ozone (a form of oxygen) that filters out most of the Sun's dangerous ultraviolet rays (UV-B). This UV-B could otherwise be absorbed by the DNA in all surface dwelling life on Earth. Ultraviolet radiation can cause cataracts, cancer, and mutation. It can also reduce crop yields, and damage arable land.

The ozone is located between 4 and 10 miles above the surface of the Earth (lower near the poles), with the highest ozone concentrations in a region that is variously called the lower stratosphere, the tropopause, or simply the "ozone layer".

Ozone itself is a triatomic molecule, composed of three oxygen atoms that bonded, unlike the oxygen we breathe, which are diatomic molecules, meaning two oxygen atoms. The "ozone layer" contains more than 90% of the earth's ozone. Ozone is a corrosive, light blue gas with a smell something like burning electrical wiring. The atmosphere at this altitude is still about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and the peak ozone concentration is about 9 ppm (or 0.0009%). Other things (water vapor, carbon dioxide, argon, and so on) are present there in small concentrations too.

The ozone layer has been depleted during the 20th century by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halogens. When the damage to the ozone layer became clear during the 1970s the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty to limit their production was set up, and came into force in 1989. Despite this phasing out, ozone levels in the stratosphere are still low and scientists predict they will not recover until 2050.

An ozone hole also periodically forms, since ozone is unstable. The word "hole" is somewhat misleading. This is actually a diminished concentration of ozone due to the lack of sunlight and not a complete absence. An ozone hole forms over a pole, then later closes, once each year at the pole that is not receiving UV-C light from the Sun. The southern polar hole is larger than the northern polar hole, due to the polarity of Earth's magnetic field. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) make the hole larger, last longer, and contain less ozone, which is only an indication of the general "health" of the ozone layer. The hole itself forms in areas that are receiving no UV-B from the Sun either, so there are no lifeforms at risk from our Sun directly "beneath the hole," but every surface organism is at risk from a thinned ozone layer.

If you took all the ozone in an entire column from the ground to infinity, and compressed it to STP (standard temperature and pressure, or 0°C at 1 atmosphere pressure) it would be a layer about 3 mm thick. There is less than 1/3 as much in the Antarctic "ozone hole" when it is winter there.

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Time
Scientists

What are scientists that study time called?

I am not sure but it may be chronologist.

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Chemistry
Albert Einstein
Scientists

How did scientist explain Brownian Motion?

ssnnaakkeess

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Britain in WW2
Scientists

What country was Dimitri Mendeleev from?

Tobolsk,sibera

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History of Science
Scientists
Louis Pasteur

Who was Louis Pasteur and what did he do?

Louis Pasteur was a 19th-century biochemist whose work with germs and microorganisms opened up whole new fields of scientific inquiry, aided industries ranging from wine to silk, and made him one of the world's most celebrated scientists.

Louis Pasteur was born on 27 December 1822 in Dole, Jura, France. He was to become known as the founder of microbiology. Pasteur was the one who discovered the role of bacteria in fermentation. In 1857, through experimentation and research with bacteria, he determined that certain microorganisms contaminated fermenting beverages. He used this knowledge to develop a process whereby liquids such as milk were heated to kill all bacteria and moulds which were already contained within them. This process became known as pasteurisation.

The first test of pasteurisation was completed by Pasteur with the assistance of Claude Bernard, on 20 April 1862. Pasteur then recognised that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, and his research soon led others to investigate sterilisation, disinfection, vaccines, and eventually antibiotics. Pasteur created and tested vaccines for diphtheria, cholera, yellow fever, plague, rabies, anthrax, and tuberculosis. The rabies vaccine was first tested on a nine-year-old boy named Joseph Meister, on 6 July 1885. Meister was bitten by a rabid dog, and was subsequently treated by Pasteur with a rabies virus he had grown in rabbits but weakened by drying, a treatment he had earlier tried on dogs. The treatment was successful and the boy survived without ever developing rabies. Joseph Meister later went on to become a caretaker at the Pasteur Institute.

Pasteur was subject to strokes from the early age of 46, and eventually died in 1895 from complications resulting from these strokes.

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