Scientific Method

The scientific method is the basis of scientific investigation. A scientist will pose a question and formulate a hypothesis as a potential explanation or answer to the question. The hypothesis will be tested through a series of experiments. The results of the experiments will either prove or disprove the hypothesis. This category should contain questions and answers regarding the scientific method.

Research Papers
Scientific Method

What are the basic steps that are always included in the scientific method?

5 and 7 Step Methods

The 5 Step Method:

  1. define the problem
  2. create a prediction that provides explanation
  3. create a scientific procedure to test the ideas
  4. observation of results in the procedure
  5. form a conclusion based on all of the other steps.

The 7 Step Mehod:

  1. Ask and define the question.
  2. Gather information and resources through observation.
  3. Form a hypothesis.
  4. Perform one or more experiments and collect and sort data.
  5. Analyze the data.
  6. Interpret the data and make conclusions that point to a hypothesis.
  7. Formulate a "final" or "finished" hypothesis.

With the investigation concluded, the published results will be verified by other investigators, and the "tested" knowledge integrated into a larger whole of scientific information.

More Information:

It is important to note that there is no one single scientific method. Every experiment is different and may or may not follow the exact steps; science is less structured than most realize. However, there are key elements of the experimental process that we can identify.

In experiments (and in everyday life), scientists (and non-scientists) use hypothetico-deductive reasoning, or "If...then logic" to identify and test problems and solutions.

The start of every experiment does not start with "asking a question." It actually starts just before that. If you think about it, you cannot ask a question without identifying a problem that you observe. You do not ask "how does an owl hunt at night?" without first observing that an owl successfully captures mice as a food source at night. So this is where we start -- observation.

Now we go to our question. You have just observed a natural phenomenon, and now comes the time to question why this is.

As is our nature, we set out to answer this question. But first we need a tentative solution to our problem/question in order to test this theory. This is called a hypothesis; an educated guess. It is important that this hypothesis be able to test in an experiment. In other words, your hypothesis cannot be "because ghosts are playing tricks", because this is untestable and outside the realm of science.

So we have our tentative answer to our problem/question, and now we need to test this hypothesis. But usually we don't rush head-on into a task without knowing what our result should be. Therefore, we make a prediction, which will explain our results.

We have our hypothesis that we're going to test, and we have our predicted result should the hypothesis be true. Finally, we get to test and perform the experiment.

If this test supports the hypothesis, then additional predictions may be made and another test is performed. If the test does not support the hypothesis, then revision of the hypothesis is needed and a retest is performed.

Application of hypothetico-deductive reasoningObservation: My flashlight doesn't work

Question: What's wrong with my flashlight?

Hypothesis: The flashlight's batteries are dead.

Prediction: If this hypothesis is correct

Experiment: and I replace the batteries with new ones,

Predicted Result: then the flashlight should work.
Step 1. Problem/Question

Step 2. Hypothesis

Step 3. Method/Experiment

Step 4. Conclusion

Periodic Table
Scientific Method

What is Clinistix and albustix used for?

Clinistix is a commercially available product for testing for of glucose in urine. It turns purple if glucose is present. Albustix is a commercially available product for testing for the presence protein in urine.

Scientific Method

How do you know if a hypothesis is testable?

To be truly testable, a hypothesis should be falsifiable, with counter-testing and proof of the null hypothesis possible.

First you have to find a problem then find a question or what you are going to test. An example would be paper towels, such as how much weight they can hold. A hypothesis would be, "Bounty will hold over two hundred pennies. A hypothesis is an educated guess.

Scientific Method

What are observed results?

These are results which you look at or observe with your eyes. This can often be called empirical results.

Scientific Method

Can a problem of inquiry be proved or disproved using the scientific method?

The scientific method can be used to provide a proof. In most cases, it cannot be disproven.

This answer makes a little sense as presented, but it's neither complete nor correct. It's generally accepted by researchers today that NOTHING can be scientifically proven to be correct. One can offer support to an hypothesis, and when a vast quantity of evidence gathered seems to do support the hypothesis, it may graduate to the level of a THEORY. That's about as close to ''proof'' as we can get. This means that stating some scientific contention is a theory is a very strong statement indeed. It means essentially that everyone in the scientific community accepts it as correct. That still doesn't mean it is simply means that all known evidence accumulated to date has demonstrated that it is.

The reason for this apparent waffling is that results that may or may not support a given hypothesis are mutable. The development of new instruments or ideas can alter results and conclusions. Over the years, this has happened many times.

There are many who believe that while science can never prove an hypothesis is right, it can be proven to be wrong. I would argue that while the idea may sometimes seem to be absolutely wrong, time and breakthrough instrumentation could alter that evidence also.

Scientific Method

What is the definition of scientific method?

The systematic pursuit of knowledge involving a) the recognition and formulation of a problem b) the collection of data through observation and experiment, and c) the formulation and testing of a hypothesis.

1. Identify A Problem and Ask A Question

2. Make A Hypothesis

3. Test The Hypothesis (Design & Conduct Experiments)

4. Collect Data

5. Analyaze The Results

6. Draw Conclusions

7. Make Recommendations / Solutions.

Scientists generally publish the results of an experiment, so that other scientists can compare it to their results.

Science Experiments
Scientific Method

What are the strengths and weaknesses in the use of experiment?

Experimentation is the second most important tool in science. Examination is the first.

However, there is an aspect of experimentation that must always be carefully considered, and that is Empiricalmethod. Empiricism means that through scientific process and observation, others might come to the same well-thought-out conclusion, and thus a Theory may become a Law.

On the other hand, a poorly conceived experiment, or shoddy methods are the very opposite of good science. Because, science should always follow what is true and can be proven, regardless of what your preconceived notions or hypotheses might be.

Scientific Method

What are some signs a chemical change has occurred?

There may be many indicators of a chemical change. Here are a few although not all can categorically indicate a chemical change:

  • Gas or bubbles are formed
  • Heat, light, or sound is given off
  • Change in color
  • Different taste or smell (never taste or smell anything in a chemical lab, unless directed to do so.)
  • New substance is formed (a precipitate)
  • Temperature (exothermic or endothermic reactions)

a gas forms when two liquids are mixed.. study island cheater! haha
You can tell when there has been a chemical change in something when:

-it's in a different state of matter

- has a different smell

-or gives off heat or other gases, especially carbon dioxide.

Science Experiments
Scientific Method

How do you know when an experiment is valid?

The results of an experiment are valid when they can be repeated by other scientists doing the same experiment.

Scientific Method
Earth Sciences
Pangaea Supercontinent

Why is the earth's surface not expanding?

This is because when one divergent boundary is occurring (more sea floor being made), convergent boundaries are occurring (the sea floor is being consumed) on the other sides of the plates, such as what is occurring at the Mariannas Trench in the Pacific Ocean.

Math and Arithmetic
Scientific Method

Why cannot the uncertainty of a measurement be zero?

Any instrument with which you measure can only have a finite degree of specificity, and you will always have error within that degree of specificity.

For example, using a meter stick that includes centimeters and millimeters, and the human eye a person can measure the length a stick, and by looking at the millimeter marks decide if the length is closer to 3.4 centimeters or 3.3 centimeters. In actuality, the length is something in between, but the person can only report what they see, so if the end of the stick is closer to 3.4 than 3.3, they will say 3.4. In this case, the error is .05 cm (or .5 mm) because you can only detect lengths as being more or less than halfway between two mm marks.

A better ruler might have marks between the mm marks. You could imagine someone with really great vision who could see .1 mm on this special ruler. So they might be able to tell that the stick is closer to 3.43 cm than 3.44 cm, but that's as precise of a decimal as they could report, because the measuring instrument (the ruler) only includes marks for .1 mm (or .01 cm). The maximum error in this case would be .005 cm (or .05 mm) because the person can tell the stick is less than halfway between 3.43 and 3.44, but cannot decipher more than that.

Any measuring instrument, not jut rulers, comes with a finite level of specificity. The maximum error is half of that level of specificity. A scale that reports weight only in whole pounds would have maximum error of .5 lbs, while a scale that reports weight in tenths of a pound would have a maximum error (or uncertainty of measurement) of .05 lbs.

Meteorology and Weather
Scientific Method

What does an anemometer measure?

Wind speed

Scientific Method

What are the different types of hypothesis?

1. Types of hypotheses-

a. Inductive is a generalization based on specific observations.

b. Deductive is derived from theory and provides evidence that supports, expands, or contradicts the theory.

c. Nondirectional - states that relation or difference between variables exists.

d. Directional - states the expected direction of the relation or difference.

e. Null - states that there is no significant relation or difference between variables.

Scientific Method

What is the purpose of conducting a scientific experiment?

To test your hypothesis.

Scientific Method

What does an observer do?

An observer is one who observes. That person uses his senses or instruments to perceive or detect things, and makes notes as to what was seen, heard, recorded, etc.

Forensic Science
Scientific Method

Advantages and disadvantages of biotechnology?

Biotechnology is essentially the use of technology to make biological processes benifit mankind. Advantages include: * The design of diagnostic kits * The creation of genome analysis tools through bioinformatics * Genetic engineering techniques to improve food crops * Molecular biology method to help understand the nature of diseases * Finding targets for drugs * Molecular breeding methods to help improve livestock * Creation of genetically modified foods to feed the ever growing world population * Use of DNA fingerprinting in the court of law * Use of the PCR reaction to clone DNA and make millions of identical copies * Use of stem cells to treat diseases * Diagnosing genetic disorders The disadvantages include ethical and moral issues surrounding cloning and the effect this has on society.

Scientific Method

What are the scientific method aim?

To achieve consistant and, overall, repeatable results, giving a good indication that a theory / hypothesis is correct. To determine the validity of results achieved in experimentation.

Snow and Ice
Science Experiments
Scientific Method

In a science fair project what is the result?

The result is writing what you got at the end of the experiment what happened.What happened? Was your hypothesis correct? What could you replace?
Global Warming
Information Science and Libraries
Scientific Method

Science working models for class 9?

go for hydro power plant

i made this model when i was in ninth

this is very easy

on a thermacol make two houses or hut one road and most importantantly one dam

buy one small motor this is easily available in markets

it will cost you Rs 50

it will hawe a shaft

attach turbine to it made of silver foil which we use for food packaging

take two bulbs use it as light of the huts

make two street lights near roads

while showing its working use battery or cells to light them

you can explain it as when turbine rotates it produces electricity which we ase for domestic or industrial purpuse

i know it will be hard for you to make it without seeing

but i will try to find out a photo graph of my model

other is solar energy in this olso u have to make huts roads and all

as solar cells r very costly u can make them using a mirror

u can also make model on topic circulatary system

make a big diagram of heart and use to pipes and pumps

add blue color in water to show impure blood and red color to show pure blood

Organic Chemistry
Scientific Method
How To

How to calculate lambda max?

using uv-visible spectrophotometer

concentration vs absorbance is plotted and the maximum absorbance of the drug is lambda max of the drug. then after it will decrease. still if needed clarification, refer beer lambert"s law

Scientific Method

How is Hypothesis different from scientific law?

A hypothesis is a guess when a scientific law has been answered and proven.

History of Science
WW1 Allied Forces
Scientific Method

What is the Definition of displacement in scientific terms?

" The minimum distance between two points is known as Displacement."

"The vector distance between two points is known as Displacement."

Displacement is a vector quantity and is shown by d.

Displacment is the distance and direction of an object's change in possition from the starting point. ( i got this from my science text book but im only 13 so DONT JUDGE ME!!! thank you. ^.^)

Scientific Method

What is a tripod and how it is used?

A tripod is a general term for a stand or support

with three legs. It is often used to support a camera

gun, or to place above the Bunsen burner in the science lab

to heat/boil anything.

In the science laboratory, a metal gauze is placed on top of it to

give support to the beaker (An iron ring clamp with a ring stand

can often be used instead and an iron ring allows for easy height adjustment).

See Web LinksSee the Web Links to the left for more information and pictures.
Scientific Method

What is the inference?

Observation is the process of gathering objective data, and inference is the process of making some decisions about what the data means. Usually this is done with the help of statistical analysis.


  1. Observation is contact with the world through the use of the senses.
  2. Observation equips us with the material for thought, reflection and judgment.
  3. Observers exposed to the same sense impressions do not necessarily see, hear, feel, taste or smell the same things.
  4. Observation is influenced by experience, knowledge and emotion.
  5. Attention plays an important part in observation.
  6. One can be trained to be a more effective observer.
  7. Some people are more reliable witnesses than others.
  8. The trained observer sees significant details.
  9. A sharp eye for details is an important skill for many professions: scientists, physicians, artists, instructors, accountants, among others.


  1. We draw inferences on the basis of observations, or on conclusions drawn from previous observations.
  2. Inference is the interpretation of facts. (A statement of fact is an observation statement that can be verified by the use of the senses.)
  3. Valid inferences are based on sufficient and relevant evidence.
  4. Inferences express probability, not certainty.
  5. Our training and background provide a basis for our inferences.
  6. Inferences enable us to assess and evaluate conditions and make predictions.

To deduce results after coordination the observed fact with indegrated scientfic knowledge is called Inference

Chemical Energy
Scientific Method
Bunsen Burners

What is a Bunsen burner and how is it used?

From Wikipedia (see Link to the left):

A Bunsen burner is a device used in scientific laboratories for heating, sterilization, and many other uses.

The device safely burns a continuous stream of a flammable gas such as natural gas (which is principally methane) or a liquified petroleum gas such as propane, butane, or a mixture of both.

From (see Link to the left):

The Bunsen burner is used frequently in the laboratory as a source of heat. This burner is designed so that gaseous fuel may be mixed with the correct amount of air to yield the maximum amount of heat. In order to use this burner properly and safely, it is essential that you understand its construction and the adjustments that can be made.

The three principal parts of the burner are: barrel, needle valve, and base. The quantity of gas admitted to the burner is controlled by the needle valve, while the air needed for combustion is admitted at the small opening around the bottom of the barrel. The air is controlled by turning the barrel so as to make the air holes larger or smaller.

Always open the desk outlet valve fully and regulate the gas supply to the burner by the needle valve. Always extinguish your burner by turning off the desk outlet valve (and then closing the needle valve and barrel.) If there is an accident always shut off the desk outlet valve immediately.


1. Check connections to burner and desk outlet valve.

2. Close needle valve and barrel.

3. Open desk outlet valve fully.

4. Check for leaks with flame.

5. While holding flame above barrel, open needle valve 1/2 turn.

6. Adjust barrel and needle valve for blue in blue flame.

Always light burner in open space on lab counter. After you have adjusted it for the flame needed move it into position. One person in lab group is always responsible for maintaining the burner and flame.

Burner Procedure:

1. Light the burner according to our rules. Observe the yellow flame which is produced because not enough air is admitted to give complete combustion. The yellow color is caused by small particles of unburned carbon which become incandescent.

2. Now rotate the barrel until the flame is entirely blue. Two different zones should appear when the burner is correctly adjusted. Too much air should not be admitted as it may cool the flame or blow it out entirely. After having the teacher confirm a good hot, blue flame draw a diagram of the flame (use labels and descriptions). Indicate on your diagram of the flame where the hottest part of the flame is located.

See the Web Links to the left for more information.

Bunsen burner barrels can be rotated, either opening or closing the barrel, to adjust the flow of air or oxygen, thereby controlling the flame.


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