History of Science
Find questions about the origin and important events that led to the development of the different Sciences.
Asked in History of Science, Science, Superstitions
What superstitious beliefs have a scientific basis?
Superstitious belief, by definition, have no scientific basis. Science requires that ideas are tested in a way that is repeatable and falsifiable. Falsifiable means that there must be a way that the test shows that a stated belief is not true, while most superstitions rely on metaphysical entities or powers that are so vague they can not be dis-proven. Here are some examples of superstitions, and where they may have come from. Breaking a mirror is seen as seven years of bad luck from a historical root. Back in the medieval times mirrors were very expensive. And if you broke one, it was reguarly someone important, such as the lord of the kingdom of the king or a high-ranking nobleman. And if you broke it, it was common that if they were un-forgiving, they would put you in jail, possibly for seven years. Walking under a ladder is seen as bad luck Typically a ladder means someone at the top of the ladder and that person can easily drop things - onto your head. So it really is a bad idea to walk under one. Never sweep the floor at night or you'll sweep sorrow into your life. You may not be able to see where you're sweeping and fall and get injured. Chase away any owls outside your window; they are a harbinger of death. They may erode your windowsill by pecking on it, and when you lean on it, it may break and you may fall. Never start or buy anything on a Friday. Since Friday is the last business day, you or your order will probably not be active on the weekend. Cut your hair on a full moon and it will grow back faster. Well, if you cut your hair at a barber's shop, and you can see the moon, the barber will probably bee in a hurry to leave and so will give you a shorter haircut. Crickets in your home are good luck (not in my home and definitely not for the nasty crickets!) They tell the temperature. Killing a spider is bad luck. In addition to reducing local disease-carrying insects, spiders provide humans with other medical benefits. Spider venom is used in neurological research and may prevent permanent brain damage in stroke victims. The silk produced by spiders is used in many optical devices including laboratory instruments. Ivy growing on a house protects the inhabitants from witchcraft and evil. Evil may mistake it for poison ivy and stay away. Friday the 13th is unlucky The Templars were all arrested (and most were tortured and executed) one Friday the 13th! Actors believe that using real money as a prop is bad luck. This is probably rooted in the fact that leaving real money on stage or in your costume means that there is a good chance that the prop will disappear before the next performance. Opening an umbrella in the house is bad luck. Like walking under a ladder, this is just a hazard; you could hit someone or break something. Bad luck comes in threes. This is sometimes expressed in notable deaths occurring in threes. In fact, this is a well-known psychological bias known as "confirmation effect"; when two events occur, people naturally anticipate a third (two things don't form a pattern, but three do). When the expectation is satisfied, it "proves" the adage. Of course, if it is not, then the pattern is not recognized.
Asked in Biology, Chemistry, History of Science
What is biological methods?
The scientific method in which biological problems are solved is termed as biological method.It comprises the steps a biologist adopt in order to solve a biological problem,In solving a biological problem a biologist adopt the following steps 1) Recognition of biological problem. 2) Observation. 3) Hypothesis formulation. 4) Deduction. 5) Experimentation. 6) Summarization of result. 7) Reporting of result. 8) Formation of theory. 9) Biological Law
Asked in Science, History of Science
How many branches of science are there?
There are innumerable branches of science. No matter how small a field is, is a branch and there are new fields opening every day. Just look at science journal publisher and there hundred of subjects just a for a limited area like subatomic physics. Big branches include physics, chemistry, and biology where there all sorts of overlapping subjects like chemical physics.
Asked in History of Science, Marie Curie
Who was the husband of Mary Curie?
Asked in Chemistry, History of Science, Periodic Table
Who created the periodic table?
The first periodic table was developed by Dmitri Mendeleev in the mid-19th century.He wasn't the only person thinking along those lines ... both John Newlands and Lothar Meyer had proposed similar ideas However, Newlands was largely criticized and ignored at the time, and Meyer didn't make any predictions, so Mendeleev's table (which did make predictions about the properties of several as-yet-undiscovered elements) is generally regarded as the first.
What is a transpiration in a plant process?
Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves. Transpiration also includes a process called guttation, which is the loss of water in liquid form from the uninjured leaf or stem of the plant, principally through water stomata.
Asked in Religion & Spirituality, Philosophy and Philosophers, History of Science, Math History, Scientists, Mathematicians, René Descartes
Why did René Descartes believe in god?
One of his reasons for believing in god is that he knows (or thinks) that God is perfect. Since perfection includes existence, he therefore assumes that God must exist. Answer: Descartes made a series of increasingly unsupportable suppositions to back up his beleief in God: 1. I exist (A supportable statement for an individual - Cogito ergo sum) 2. I have in my mind the notion of a perfect being (The idea that anyone can develop an idea of a perfect being is not provable. The Aztec may have thoght their bloodthirsty gods perfect as well) 3. An imperfect being, like myself, cannot think up the notion of a perfect being (There is no proof although it is believable that humans are not perfect and it is debatable if the idea he has of a perfect being is indeed perfect) 4. Therefore the notion of a perfect being must have originated from the perfect being himself (This is a flight of fancy) 5. A perfect being would not be perfect if it did not exist (Buddhists, for example see perfection in the loss of being) 6. Therefore a perfect being must exist (This does not follow from any of the above statements)
Asked in Biology, History of Science, Genetics
What is an allele and what is a nasty allele?
Allele is word used by Mendel for counter parts of an elementon later called factor and renamed as gene e.g. T and t are alleles for a gene that controls height in pea plant .Nasty allele is not biological term . Note word elementon is technical term used by Mendel , it is not element used in Chemistry .
Asked in Science, History of Science, Technology
Draw a diagram explaining the relationship between science and technology?
Asked in History of Science, Evolution
Is evolution reversible?
Answer 1 Evolution is not a process that can be reversed. The core principle behind evolution is that traits with a positive impact on survivability or reproduction tend to passed on to subsequent generations. Evolution itself is merely the slight alteration of a species gene pool over many generations. Perhaps you can see that the question "Is evolution reversible is something of a misnomer. Is the process by which you change something reversible In certain processes the thing that is changed can be returned to its original state, but this process also requires change. If you intended to reverse an evolutionary process the only way you could do so would be through evolution. This type of process has no non-reflexive logical inverse. Perhaps what the question intended to ask was whether a species could "revert" back to a "less evolved" state. An example to explain this would be the reversion of humans to a more apelike genetic structure. This is certainly possible. If traits that were more apelike positively impacted the survival rate or the reproduction rate of the humans that had them than humans would begin to evolve to become more and more like our simian ancestors. Answer 2 : There are certain examples of reversal in evolution .Most familiar trend can be seen in evolution of Dinosaurs which were of small size in Triassic period , evolved to maximum size in Jurassic period ,and again decreased in size in Cretaceous period . Answer 3: The process of Evolution doesn't have a "direction", it doesn't favor one type of organism or trait as being "higher" than another. So in a broad sense evolution simply goes where environmental conditions dictate, there's no backward (reverse) or forward. Could traits that were once non-adaptive reappear in a population if environmental conditions changed to make them adaptive again? Yes Can an individual organism reacquire older traits that were not part of it's original genetic makeup? No Do some older traits occasionally reappear in vestigial form in some individual organisms. Yes (there are instances of humans being born with a short tail etc.) Answer 4 Evolution is basically a stochastic phenomenon. In order for evolution to "back-track", every single change in the genome that had occurred would have to be reversed in the exact reversal of the order that they occurred in. This is so extremely unlikely to ever occur that, were it observed, we would have to conclude aliens were pulling our legs. But although evolution is not reversible, it is possible for traits to evolve a similarity with an earlier form. Consider for instance the fish-like shapes of whales: they evolved from land-dwelling mammals, which in turn can trace their ancestry back to early fish. Same shape, completely different genetics. Answer 5 If you cloned an extinct animal, it might count as evolution going backwards. Not sure about that though, cause it's a pretty philosophical question.
Asked in Chemistry, History of Science
What does a bohr model of iron look like?
Hydrogen the simplest of all elements, was investigated most extensively both experimentally and theoretically. As long ago as 1885, Balmer succeeded in obtaining a simple relationship among the wave numbers of the lines in the visible region of the hydrogen spectrum. The first quantitative correct derivation of the Balmer formula on the basis of an atomic model was given by Bohr (1913), in his theory of the hydrogen atom. Those theory has played such an important role in the development of atomic physics that even though it has been modified and extended by the later developments in quantum mechanics, it will be worthwhile to present the original simplified theory. In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed a model for the hydrogen atom which retained the earlier nuclear model of Rutherford but made further stipulations as to the behavior of the electron. A dramatic explanation of the Rydberg spectral expression resulted.
Asked in Biology, History of Science, Taxonomy
What is meant by the biological hierarchy?
The biological hierarchy refers to the different levels of classification from domain to species (eight levels). The three domains are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, while the types of species number in the high hundred thousands or low millions. Each organism can be classified into a race and then taxonomically into species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and then domain.
Asked in Units of Measure, Physics, History of Science
Dimensional formula of capacitance?
Asked in Social Sciences, History of Science, Sociology
What would life be like without penicillin?
Simple scrapes, cuts and internal injuries would slowly build and ravage our body both from the inside-out and the other way around. There are certain strains of bacteria that are resistant to almost every form of antibiotic. 2 of them may cause a lot of damage in the near future: MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) and VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus).
What did Hugh Bennett do on April 14 1935?
I don't know about April 14 - HOWEVER -- - When the Soil Erosion Service was established as part of the United States Department of the Interior in September 1933, Bennett became the director. He continued to speak out on soil conservation issues, especially through the Dust Bowl years, and eventually influenced the passage of the soil conservation act of April 27, 1935, which created the Soil Conservation Service at the USDA.