According to Aristotle, there are three main types of government: monarchy, aristocracy, and polity. Monarchy is a rule by a single individual, aristocracy is rule by a few elite individuals, and polity is rule by the many, or the common people. Aristotle also recognized that each of these forms of government can devolve into a corrupt or unjust version: tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy, respectively.
Aristotle classified government into three main categories: monarchy (rule by one), aristocracy (rule by the few), and polity (rule by many). He did not include tyranny as a separate category, but viewed it as a corrupt form of monarchy or rule by one.
Aristotle initially divided living organisms only into two groups which are plants and animals. The system was not proven to be good because there were too many species of plants and animals. However, the system was used for 2000 until the time of Linnaeus.
The characteristics are seeds, if they have a vascular tissue and if they have flowers or not. Hope this is helpful!
Yes, but, unfortunately, all his books have been lost. What we have are lecture notes compiled by his students. They are, however, complete enough that many rank Aristotle as being one of the greatest western philosophers (along with Plato, who was his teacher).
"Poetry is finer and more philosophical than history; for poetry expresses the universal, and history only the particular. " -Aristotle
The book which contains Aristotle's works is called the Corpus Aristotelicum. These are the surviving works that haven't been lost.
Samuel Jonson (Dictionary Jonson)
Each mode expressed a certain feeling and each mode had its place. -apex
The orators claimed to be wise (sophos in Greek), but they specialized in using rhetorical (verbal) tricks to win any argument. When someone asked Aristotle if he considered himself a wise person (sophist) he said he wasn't sure, but he had always been a lover (philos=love) of wisdom - a philosophos. Socrates went even further, after a famous oracle (priestess) declared that he was the wisest man in Athens he denied that he possessed any wisdom at all (which is called Socratic ignorance). He began searching for someone wiser than himself by asking everyone he met questions about things he himself was unsure of. Many people thought they knew the answers to Socrates' questions. Rather than directly arguing with them (as the sophists did), Socrates would respond with more questions, exposing flaws in their reasoning (this came to be called the Socratic Method). When no one could successfully answer his questions, he concluded that the oracle had been right because while the other Athenians had believed they were wise when they were not, Socrates had always known that he did not know and this was his only wisdom (philosophers call that Socratic irony).
"Nature" here means ways of classifying things.
For example, questions philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato and Socrates might ask are:
Great Philosophers began to study Nature (here, meaning, woodlands, trees, leaves, plants) and try to classify things, not only based on type, size, shape, but to explore with their thinking just what defines humans as humans, animals as animals, nature (the scenery around us) as nature, and objects as things.
They began to explore the "nature of...." (everything). What is IT? If IT is described as A, B, C, D, then what about this other IT that seems different from the first IT we studied? What makes a living tree and attached leaves be the same but also different from a felled tree on the ground on top of leaf litter that fell in autumn? These ideas were the beginnings of recognizing the smallest pieces of life: molecules and atoms.
They also studied abstract concepts, things they could see but that needed defined. For example: motion. They saw the wind blow the leaf-- is the wind also a living being? How is something moved, when is it moved, how is it moved? These ponderings helped construct the beginnings of the subject of physics.
The nature of something is classifying it not only by what we see but how it (or a person) functions and behaves, thinks and feels, does (and does not do). The leaf "dances" on the wind as if a living entity, yet it differs from a living human being who also twirls and dances as if he or she is the leaf carried upon the wind!
The levels of classifying humans or things can be as endless as the human or object we are studying, depending how far "in" to the item or person we're studying. As 2 examples, you could classify a person by:
The "nature of something" also contains some mysteries, the things we ASK ourselves about, but do not yet know the answers!