For questions on the theory, method, and practice of studying past cultures and peoples.

4,825 Questions
Property Law
History of India

How can you preserve public property of India?

Indian Constitution provides enough law to protect and to preserve the public property of India.

A need is there to emphasize the importance and value of Public Properties.

We shd stop depending on the government and shd take some individual steps as well.


Archaeological finding in butuan during seventies?

In the mid-seventies when a team from the National Museum of the Philippines excavating a site was told that a strip of metal with some kind of writing had been found by a treasure hunter. Fortunately, the artifact was already in the hands of Proceso Gonzales, the city engineer of Butuan. He understood the importance of the find and took possession of it.

Social Sciences
Human Origins

Did the neanderthals walk upright?


Native American History

How do you authenticate a Folsom arrowhead?

One option is to contact your local university's archaeology department.

Another would be to contact one of the many commercial artifact authenticators out there. I use these guys and have been very happy with their professional service.

Ancient History

Who studies past cultures?

Cultural anthropologists, sociologists and historians.


What is the first bread ever made?

There is some evidence from various sites in Europe (Italy, Russia and the Czech Republic) that grains and starchy vegetables were ground into paste and cooked as early as 30,000 years ago. The form is not certain, but it was probably formed into a flatbread, which was placed on heated stones.


How do fossils and artifacts help teach us about the past?

Fossils and artifacts help teach us about the past by providing an idea on when an animal lived or how civilization lived.



When was the shed invented?

It is hard to pin down an exact invention date, but the word and the idea were being used as far back as the 1440s, according to Wikipedia.


In harder times, people built one small building, separated by a short wall, where both people and their animals lived. This enabled them both to keep warm in the hard winters. Root cellars were used to keep fruit, vegetables and seeds until the winter or the next planing season. Sheds probably appeared as people became more prosperous and all of their tools or other needs would not fit into the primary space.


On the lighter side....

The shed was invented in March 1983 by Prof J. Boyle of Whitburn Technological Institute. He was researching into the metaphysical properties of shovels when he stumbled across this quite amazing discovery. In the 22 years since, the shed has become one of the most valuable discoveries in recent history.

(source - The Shed Age by Patrick Francis :the jocular press, 2000:) Answer The above answers have got the question entirely wrong. The shed was invented one minute after the invention of the comb.The first time a man drew a comb through his hair and formed a parting he invented the shed,

Prehistoric Animals

On what continent was the oldest fossil found?

The oldest fossils in the world are found in western Australia and are those of primitive bacteria. They are about 3.5 billion years old.


What happened to the Mississippians?

I assume you are asking about the mound builders. The huge answer to this is no immunity to European diseases. I will be back on this one.


What is the oldest man made object in the world?

Ebenezer: In Japan there are possible ruins claimed by some to go back to 8000 BCE. The Stonehenge and Pyramid. Apparently, the oldest stone tools like handaxes go right back to the Lower Palaeolithic age, about 2 million years ago. It all depends on what you call a man made object.

The Difference Between

What is the difference between archaeology and paleontology?

There is a good deal of confusion about this subject even in academic circles. Archaeology is the study of remains left by societies that came before the present day. It is a specialization belonging to the field of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of human cultures, whether they be past or current.

Paleontology is the study of fossils of organisms (plant or animal) that once lived on the earth. It is a specialization belonging to the field of geology. Geology is the study of the earth's structure and mechanics.

Geography is the study of how our societies inter-relate with our environment and may incorporate the tools from all other disciplines to accomplish that goal.

So let's put it all together:

Archaeology does not deal with fossils*

Paleontology does not deal with human artifacts or remains.

Geography can use information from all sciences to best define human interactions with our environment.

.*The only occasion where archaeologists do deal with fossils is if the fossils are of animals which have been exploited by very ancient human populations. An example of this would be at the very earliest human sites in Africa, where accumulations of animal bones are found showing cut marks from stone tools.


What is the definition of archeologist?

An archaeologist is a person who studies ancient peoples, societies, and cultures and the associated artefacts.

In simple terms they undertake the systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery.

Archaeologists excavate the ground to find artifacts, or old items left behind from previous civilisations and cultural groups (ancient or modern), such as Native Americans, Indigenous Australians, Incas, etc. They use information from these items left behind to develop a picture of how people lived in earlier cultures and societies, including what they believed in, how they obtained their food and so on. They use clues from artifacts to construct a picture of people's lifestyle and culture, including such things as housing, food, religion and literature. They also study the foundations of buildings, tools and implements, household items and basically anything that their careful work uncovers.

The work of archaeologists is important because, by studying earlier civilisations, it is hoped that modern society can learn how to improve in various facets of modern culture and education. That way, we can perhaps hope to avoid some of the problems of earlier times, and solutions to modern difficulties. We can determine our own levels or progress, or even "regress", and work forwards towards improvement and betterment.

Archaeologists have traditionally been known as people who dig and sift dirt trying to find remains of ancient civilizations, often following up their findings with published materials. However, the actual day-to-day tasks and activities of archaeologists are much more involved than that.

Archaeologists must first plan their dig, and make surveys by either aerial photography or field walking, followed by desk-site assessment and evaluation of proposed dig sites; they have to check for related planning applications whilst identifying and outlining the impact of an archaeological dig on the environment; they negotiate with the authorities, the client and their own dig team; then they conduct the dig.

During the dig, they meticulously record and interpret artifacts and the landscape where they have been found using a variety of methods, such as drawings and sketches, notes, measurements and CAD (computer-aided design). These items are analysed and classified, and often followed by further research either before or in conjunction with publishing their findings. Many archaeologists are also educators, so they need strong communication skills.

Some archaeologists may specialise in the archaeology of particular areas or types of artifact. For example Egyptologists are a type of archaeologist. Various types of archaeologist work together to understand how these past societies may have been.
An archaeologist is someone who studies the past by excavating and exploring historic sites.

Ancient History

If a historian wanted to determine whether iron tools could be found in the ruins of an ancient African city which kind of expert should he consult?

Archaeologist (APEX)


An object dating back to the past?


Tanakh and Talmud
Old Testament

What details of the Ebla tablets relate to the Bible and how?

Henry O. Thompson (Biblical Archaeology) says early translations of the Ebla tablets indicated many connections with the Bible, including mention of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, and even an ancestor of Abraham.

Thompson says the biblical connection is now said to be "dead", because the early translations were all mistakes.

Barack Obama

What awards has Barack Obama received?

Obama's AwardsThe awards Barack Obama has received are:

1. Two Grammy Awards

2. Nobel Prize for Peace

The most important and world-recognized honor attained by Barack Obama as of this writing is the Nobel Peace Prize, awarded in October 2009 in Oslo.

Mr. Obama attended university at Occidental College (Los Angeles), Columbia University (New York) , and Harvard (Boston/Cambridge) and earned many academic honors, some quite prestigious and esteemed all over the world. The most significant of these were earned at Harvard Law School, where Obama graduated at the top of his class and was named President of the Law Review.

In the realm of miscellaneous public honors, Obama has so far earned two Grammy awards, both for his voice recordings of political writings.

He was also the recipient of the 2009-2010 NBA Rookie of the Year award, an obvious publicity stunt.

He also received two top awards at the Cannes Lions International Advertising Awards.

Ancient Egypt

Why did the egyptians use the mummification process?

They used mummification to preserve the deseased body so that the soul was capable of moving on to the afterlife. The hot sand of the desert would dry out the body and the deseased wasn't able to make their way into the afterlife.
Egyptians believed that the human soul was connected to their hearts. So they wanted to protect it and preserve the dead.


What do archaeologists search for?

Archaeologists search for hidden tombs and monuments they search the past from the things the people left behind.

Ancient Greece

Ancient civilization studied about the eclipses?


Stone Age

How did Paleolithic people adapt to their environment?

By making fur clothing if cold

Elements and Compounds

What is sulfur used for?

Sulfur is used in the production of sulfuric acid, matchmaking, explosives, fungicides, insecticides, tire making, agriculture, and medicine. Many other uses, too numerous to mention, also exist.

Zoology or Animal Biology

Did modern reptiles evolve from dinosaurs?

No, although modern reptiles and dinosaurs do share common ancestors that lived in the distant past (likely the Carboniferous epoch). Birds, however, evolved from dinosaurs in the Jurassic epoch.

College Degrees

What are some good subjects to minor in with archaeology as a major?

As archaeology is such a broad subject which borrows a lot of its theory and methodology from other subjects a lot of subjects would be relevant. Most common combinations would probably include history, social or physical anthropology, geosciences, physics or biology. However, choose based on what interests you.

Old Testament
Adam and Eve

Who came first Adam and Eve or Cave Men?

== == Adam and Eve obviously came first! It says in the Bible that Adam was the first man and Eve was the first woman. God created them making them the first people on earth or better said, the origin of all human kind. === === The cave men were most likely those who, in the post Babel dispersion, were forced to temporarily use caves for shelter and protection from wild animals. Some groups would also have not necessarily had the technology for building structures and so were forced to live in caves. So, as above, Adam and Eve certainly came first.The use of caves would certainly have been a temporary expedient, until more suitable shelter was either constructed or ability to construct developed. There are a number of problems with the suggested dates for human evolution and the development of agriculture, for example, which do not square with what we know of history and the actual evidence. The idea of cave men is, at least in the popular mind, connected with the idea that such were evolving into the humankind as we know it today, as they were not yet 'clever' enough to build houses or structures. The actual evidence that is found, however, indicates that humans have always been humans, with evidence of culture and sophistication, such as complex musical instruments, burial customs, and art. Thus, it is clear that Adam and Eve came first.

The term "cavemen" is a bit of a misnomer. Very few of the early hominids lived in caves. The popular view of caveman probably started in the 17th century, nowadays Neanderthals and Cro-magnon might be thought of as "cavemen" - of course it can be argued that prehistoric remains are much more likely to survive in caves that outside, so it can't be assumed that caves were common shelters. The earliest homo sapien fossils date from over 100,000 years BCE. The, somewhat confusing, calculations for the date of Adam and Eve dates them at around 4000 BCE. So if you accept the existence of a historical Adam & Eve, they postdate the earliest humans by many thousands of years. Who came first? Gee...that's not a very hard question. As mentioned above, I also know that Adam and Eve came first but there is also the posobility that Adam was a caveman himself after been pushed out of the garden of eden. Now, I will never know for sure, but there is always that possibility. Your call! :) The whole crux of this answer is how you interpret Genesis and the Adam and Eve story. Fundamental creationists will have us believe that the universe was created just 6000 years ago or so with Adam and Eve being created on the sixth day, because it says so in Genesis. Despite the overwhelming evidence to the contrary from the geological record, archaeology, ice core analysis and so on, the absolute scientific truth of Genesis is still postulated by Creationists who will not accept scientific evidence for the universe being a great deal (13 billion years?) older despite the overwhelming bank of evidence that suggests this. Often bizarre theories and couterarguments are postulated by them, most of which invoke pseudo-science and reduce Christians to laughing stocks. Sadly, within society those who would attack Christianity (such as the likes of Richard Dawking) latch on to this absurdity and then extrapolate this to the whole of Christianity - an 'if these Christians believe this rubbish then they are stupid - therefore there is no God' attitude. And, of course, Christians know that this is far from the truth. But the truth is that Genesis was never ever meant to be a scientific report on how the universe, and the earth, were created. As scripture, of course, it was inspired as the Word of God, but this does not mean that it should be taken absolutely literally. The same Creationists who accept Genesis as totally literal will also indict, say, Jehovah's Witnesses who take Revelation literally stating that only 144.000 will be saved because 'that is what it says in the Bible'. One cannot have one's cake and eat it. It also states two Creation stories in the Bible, which show some contradiction of each other - one in genesis Chapter 1, and the other in Genesis Chapter 2. Many Biblical scholars regard these being written by two different authors the 'Yahwist' (God-centred - where God is regarded as an aloof deity) author and a 'Priestly' (more human-centred, where God can walk and talk with humans) author. Some scholars regard these two stories as a foretaste of the Trinity and others as two different sources written at different times, by different people, with different agendas. The Hebrew word used in Genesis for 'day' (yom) has several meanings - one common meaning being a 'period of time'. It just so happened that in the earlier translations of Genesis the term 'day' was used. The idea of the 7 periods of time (rather than just 'days) is reinforced by the themes of 7 running through the Old testament - 7 days in the week with the 7th day being a day of rest, 7 years of crop growing with the 7th year with the ground being laid fallow, in the 7th year of slavery (the Jubillee year or sabbatical year) the slaves go free and so on. It is interesting to note that Genesis describes the order of Creation in these 7 periods of time (the universe, the solar system, seas, life in water, life on land, culminating in humanity) in total accordance with the scientific evidence, evidence which the writer (or writers) of Genesis (whether Moses or not) would not have privy knowledge unless Genesis was truly inspired by God the Creator in the first place. But note that the 'day' mentioned in Genesis was 'created' before the earth and sun - and so a normal 'day' as we would know it would not exist unless the earth had been already revolving in a 24 hour period. So the idea of 'day' as a 24 hour period is not in accordance with a universe created in a day - when the very mechanism that produces days had not yet been created. Next, look at Adam. The name 'Adam' means 'man' or 'mankind'. The name 'Eve' means 'from man'. This indicates that Adam and Eve are to represent the whole of humanity - a theme that runs throughout the Bible - and because of their turning away from God brought sin and death into the world. Unlike the animals, God made (hu)man in his own image. And yet, in the New Testament (John 4:24), we read that Jesus says God is spirit and not a human or physical form (hence Jesus' appearance on earth). So Adam, if he existed as a real person, was the first creature to be given a spiritual dimension - to be formed in the image of God. Let's forget about trees and apples for a minute (and the 'apple' doesn't get a mention anyway - it's the 'Fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil'!) and look at the whole picture. In the picturesque language that Genesis Adam, through Eve, rebels against God, and the spiritual bond between God and humans is broken. So, in Genesis we have a lesson in our own failings. God creates a universe, a world called earth, life is allowed to flourish, and humans become the pinnacle of that creation. These humanoid creatures are intelligent (just look at Stonehenge and Avebury in the UK and Newgrange in Ireland), gregarious, cultured and prolific in everything they do - but they are still animals in a sense as they lack their spiritual dimension. God creates then the first humans to have a spiritual dimension - and, in doing so, creates creatures in his own image, holy, and lacking sin. Instead of homo sapiens, let's call them "homo spiritualis" - spiritual man. But these creatures rebel, turn away from their creator and go their own way because they think they know best. Not only physical death is in the world - after all it has been there since life was created - but spiritual death enters too now. As Jesus himself said, we should not fear him who destroys the body, but we should fear him who destroys the soul (Matt 10:28). Incidentally many Creationists will also equate the devil with Satan and that, as a result of their disobedience Adam and Eve die. However, nowhere in the Genesis story is the devil mentioned. The serpent is talked of as the most cunning creature - but never equated with the devil nor assumed to be the devil. Also, no one dies in the story. No one is punished by death. Adam is punisd by being cast out of the garden and made to work tilling the soil for a living. Eve is punished by the ppains of childbirth and subservience to Adam. The first death we hear of is the murder of Abel by his brother Cain - death not at the hand of God, but by the hand of a fallen human. This must show one thing - God does not wish to punish by death - but for sinful humans murder, even in those days, is an all-too-frequent occurrence. So, to conclude, 'cavemen' as such (althoough there is little evidence many of them actually lived in caves), I believe, evolved as humanoid creatures many thousands of years ago. But, if there was a person called Adam, he may well have been the first spiritual human, created in God's own spiritual image, who appeared on earth possibly much later. But let's not get hung up on the literality of the creation stories of Genesis as they were never meant to be taken absolutely literally anyway. To read Genesis just as a literal story denudes it of the great truths hidden within the words - and sadly this is very much what literal Creationists do. Forget cavemen, forget Adam and Eve. The facts and truths that Genesis thunders out, if we would only see them, are that we are all made in the image of God, that we rebelled, and that spiritual death entered the world not long before we were given the chance of eternal life. In oother words, we blew it. Enter Jesus Christ who, through his life, death and resurrection, made possible that restoration of the bond between God and those creatures whom he made in His own image, so long ago.


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