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Geophysics

The study of Earth using the combination of Geology and Physics, it lets us understand what is going on under the Earth's surface. Find questions on different types of seismic activities such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions here.

500 Questions

What are Auroras produced by?

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Auroras are produced by the interaction between charged particles from the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field. When these particles collide with gases in the Earth's atmosphere, such as oxygen and nitrogen, they produce the beautiful light displays that are known as auroras.

Can volcanic eruption and seismic tremors produce large mudflows and debris flows?

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Yes, volcanic eruptions and seismic tremors can trigger large mudflows and debris flows by mobilizing loose volcanic material such as ash, rocks, and soil. These flows pose significant risks to nearby communities and infrastructure due to their rapid speed and destructive potential. Emergency preparedness and early warning systems are essential in areas prone to these hazards.

LAB 4-7 continental drift answers?

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Continental drift refers to the movement of Earth's continents relative to each other over time. The theory of continental drift was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, suggesting that all continents were once connected as a single supercontinent called Pangaea and have since drifted apart. Evidence supporting continental drift includes the matching shapes of continents, similar fossil distributions, and the alignment of mountain ranges across different continents.

How fertilizers increase soil fertility?

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Fertilizers provide essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium that enhance plant growth and productivity. By replenishing these nutrients in the soil, fertilizers can improve soil fertility and promote healthy plant growth. Additionally, fertilizers can help balance soil pH levels and improve the overall structure of the soil, leading to better nutrient uptake by plants.

What type of technology saves lives by warning people of an approaching storm?

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Weather warning systems, such as sirens and mobile phone alerts, help save lives by warning people of an approaching storm. These systems use data from weather radars and other sources to provide early alerts to residents in at-risk areas, giving them time to seek shelter and take precautions.

Who is The Father of the Theory of Continental Drift?

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Alfred Wegener is considered the father of the theory of continental drift. In the early 20th century, he proposed the idea that the continents were once connected and had drifted apart over time, forming the basis for the modern theory of plate tectonics.

Does ganymede shows evidence of ancient plate tectonics?

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Yes, Ganymede shows evidence of ancient plate tectonics, including grooved terrain that may be related to the movement of tectonic plates. This suggests that Ganymede's icy surface has experienced significant geological activity in the past.

What is the average wind speed in Brazil?

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The average wind speed in Brazil varies depending on the region, but it generally ranges from 3 to 7 meters per second. Coastal areas and higher-altitude regions tend to experience higher wind speeds compared to inland areas.

Which Earth layer is responsible for filling in gaps left by seafloor spreading?

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The process of seafloor spreading occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed. As the crust moves away from the ridge, it cools and contracts, creating gaps. The mantle beneath the Earth's crust, known as the asthenosphere, is responsible for filling in these gaps through upwelling of magma, solidifying to form new oceanic crust.

What temperature do olivine and calcium rich plagioclase feldspar crystallize from magma?

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Olivine typically crystallizes at temperatures between 1,200 to 1,400 degrees Celsius, while calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar crystallizes at slightly lower temperatures between 900 to 1,200 degrees Celsius from magma.

Who explained that the geological processes seen happening on the earth now have shaped Earths geological features over long periods of time?

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James Hutton, often regarded as the father of modern geology, proposed the principle of uniformitarianism in the late 18th century. This principle states that the same geological processes we observe today, such as erosion and volcanic activity, have been at work shaping Earth's features over long periods of time. This idea laid the foundation for understanding the gradual changes that have occurred in Earth's geological history.

How many cm the group moved horizontally and vertically during the earthquake in japan 2011?

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During the earthquake in Japan 2011, parts of Japan moved horizontally up to 4.8 meters and vertically up to 1.2 meters due to tectonic shifts along the fault lines. These movements were a result of the intense seismic activity and the release of energy along the fault lines.

Is the Earths rotational axis tilted 23.5 degrees to the plane of orbital rotation around the Sun?

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Yes, that is correct. The Earth's rotational axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees relative to its orbital plane around the Sun. This tilt is what causes the changing seasons on Earth as different parts of the planet receive varying amounts of sunlight throughout the year.

Are S waves transverse or longitudinal?

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S waves are transverse waves, which means the particles in the medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. This is in contrast to P waves, which are longitudinal waves where the particles vibrate parallel to the wave direction.

How was the cretaceous period different from the Jurassic period?

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The Cretaceous period followed the Jurassic period and lasted from about 145 million to 66 million years ago. In the Cretaceous period, flowering plants became more dominant, dinosaurs continued to diversify, and large marine reptiles like mosasaurs thrived. However, the end of the Cretaceous period marked by a mass extinction event where dinosaurs and many other species went extinct.

Did the earthquake in Chile cause the earth axis to be tilted?

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No, the earthquake in Chile did not cause the Earth's axis to tilt. Earthquakes can shift the Earth's crust, but they do not have a significant impact on the Earth's overall tilt. The Earth's axis is primarily affected by gravitational forces from the Sun, Moon, and other celestial bodies.

What is santa maria magma type?

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Santa Maria volcano in Guatemala has predominantly andesitic magma, which is a type of magma that is intermediate in composition between mafic and felsic magmas. This type of magma has characteristics of both basaltic and rhyolitic magmas.

Does solstice tilt the Earth's axis?

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when the angle of sunlight is 90 degree the sun is directly above you and is very much hotter. this was about the weather and now about the season. the angle of the sun afffect the season of the earth

If a tunnel is bored through the center of earth and a pebble is dropped into it then what will happen?

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Assuming there is no air resistance or friction, the pebble will oscillate back and forth due to gravity until it reaches the center of the Earth. From there, it will continue moving in the opposite direction until it reaches the other side of the tunnel, and the process will repeat indefinitely.

How often does the rock cycle happen?

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The rock cycle is constantly occurring on Earth, driven by processes such as weathering, erosion, deposition, and tectonic activity. It can take millions of years for rocks to undergo the complete cycle from formation to metamorphism and back again.

Who purposed the continental drift hypothesis?

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The continental drift hypothesis was proposed by Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist and geophysicist, in 1912. He suggested that the continents were once joined together in a single landmass called Pangaea and had since drifted apart to their current positions.

Why was the christchurch earthquake in christchurch?

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The Christchurch earthquake occurred in Christchurch because the city is located near the boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates, known as the Alpine Fault. The movement of these plates resulted in the seismic activity that caused the earthquake.

What must happen first before magma rise to the surface?

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Before magma can rise to the surface, it must first be generated through melting of the Earth's mantle or crust. This melting can be caused by an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or the addition of volatiles. Once magma is generated, it can rise towards the surface through fractures and conduits in the Earth's crust.

Was Wegener's continental drift hypothesis weakened because of viable mechanism for moving the continents was lacking?

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Yes, one of the main criticisms of Wegener's continental drift hypothesis was that he was unable to provide a plausible mechanism for how the continents could move. This weakened his theory and it was not widely accepted until the development of the theory of plate tectonics, which provided a mechanism through the movement of Earth's tectonic plates.

How deep does an earthquake crack go?

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The depth of an earthquake crack, known as a fault or fault line, can vary greatly depending on the magnitude and type of the earthquake. Some faults can extend several kilometers below the Earth's surface, while others may be more shallow. The crack forms along the fault line where tectonic plates move against each other, causing the ground to rupture.