Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences is the study of the Earth in terms of Geography, Geology, Geophysics, etc. It combines the use of Sciences such as Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics to understand the Earth System.

83,882 Questions
Earth Sciences

Why do flies rub their hands together?

Turns out flies are not actually criminal masterminds. They rub their limbs together to clean them, getting gunk like pollen and dust out of sensory receptors—taste receptors, interestingly enough. Those receptors clue the flies in to what kind of surface they've landed on, so it's pretty important to keep them functional. Kind of ironic that such gross insects would place such a high priority on staying clean, but there you go.

Earth Sciences

What causes the seasons on Earth?

This is a more complex answer than most might think. Climate (long term weather) and climate change are a basic factor of 3 main things Obliquity (axial tilt) Precession
Rotation (elliptical eccentricity,) They are also referred to as Milankovitch cycles named for the Serbian scientist that theorized and later proved his idea of cyclical climate changes with 26k 41k and 100k events which later were mathematically shown to coincide almost exactly with earths climate history. The Earth's rotation around its axis, and revolution around the Sun, evolve over time because gravitational interactions with other bodies in the solar system. a few cycles are dominant. Earths tilt and the wobble Seasons are not caused by its proximity to the sun, rather they are caused by its tilt (obliquity) and its wobble (precession) also causes chanhes in the magnetic declination of our poles.

Think of an apple stab it with a pencil and tilt it 20 or so degrees, as the earth rotates amd revolves and wobbles the poles change place in angle to the sun, move your pencil from front to back

Earth Sciences
Oceans and Seas
Pacific Ocean

What is the deepest point in the ocean and where is it located?

In the Western Pacific, south of Japan and north of New Guinea, and to the east of the Mariana Islands is the lowest elevation of the surface of the Earth's crust. Known as the Mariana Trench, the trench is nearly 1,580 miles (2,550 kms) long and 43 miles (69 km) wide, its deepest part is known as the Challenger Deep. Named after the Royal Navy ship, HMS Challenger that first sounded it back in December 1872 to May 1876, who recorded a depth of 31,614 feet, (9,636 metres).

Subsequent expeditions have lowered and raised the depth. In 1951, another Royal Navy vessel also called Challenger reported the depth as 35,761 ft, (10,900 m).

In 1957, the Russian vessel Vityaz reported a depth of 36,200 ft, (11,034 m).

In 1984, the Japanese reported a depth of 35,840 ft, (10,924 m)

Since then the National Geographic has published the maximum depth at 36,200 feet (11,034 metres) in 1995.

Also in 1995, the Japanese reported a depth of 35,798ft (10,911 m). This is thought to be the most accurate readings.

In June 2009, an American expedition reported the maximum depth of 35,994 ft (10,971 m).

In 2010, the US Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping measured its depth at 36,070 ft (10,994 m).

So if we take the 1995 Japanese readings as the most accurate, that is 6.78 miles (10.91kms) straight down. If Mount Everest was placed there, its summit would still be one mile below the surface. The pressure down there is a staggering 15,966 pounds (7.24 metric tonnes) per square inch, or roughly 1,086 times the pressure we live with at sea level.

More men have walked on the Moon's surface than have visited the bottom. As of the time of writing (December 2009) only two men have visited the bottom, and that was back in 1960. Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard rode the bathyscape Trieste to the bottom, where they remained for 20 minutes. It looks like that record will stand for a long time, as no one has a manned DSV (that is in the public's knowledge) capable of reaching those depths.
Yes, the Mariana trench is the deepest trench, also not to be rude but it's trench not treanch.

Earth Sciences

What is the rock cycle song?

SEDIMENTARY rock Has been formed in layers Often found near water sources With fossils from decayers
Then there's IGNEOUS rock Here since Earth was born Molten Lava, cooled and hardened That's how it is formed
These two types of rocks Can also be transformed With pressure, heat and chemicals METAMORPHIC they'll become

(sung to the tune of row row row your boat)

(=**=) (

Earth Sciences

If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?

First, scientists are pretty sure the Earth's core is about 80 percent iron. How they know that is a series of educated guesses.

For starters, they can be reasonably sure of the planet's mass based on its gravitational pull. The material on the surface isn't dense enough to match up with that mass, so the rest of the Earth has to be much denser.

Iron, meanwhile, is one of the most prevalent elements in the universe, but it isn't all that evident in the Earth's crust. Since scientists would expect more iron to be in our planet and it's a fairly dense element, that leads to the conclusion that the Earth's core is mostly iron. They theorize that it was pulled to the core over millions of years. By examining different seismic waves, they know that the inner part of the core is solid and the outer core is molten.

It's a lot more scientific than I've made it sound, but hopefully that gets at the gist of it.

Earth Sciences

Where does Earth's water originally come from?

The Short Answer:

Some of it was here when the earth was made (but locked into the rocks as hydrates ... much of that released as the Earth became molten.)

And some came from comets and other ice particles that have bombarded the Earth since it was formed.

No one knows which part was the major contributor.

In more depth...:

At some early point in time (after the moon) the Earth was a hot, glowing ball which would have out-gassed fairly completely. Hydrogen is light enough so that most of it would have escaped. Free Hydrogen is lost from a planet as small as Earth, it takes the outer gas giants with much stronger gravitational pulls to hold it Additionally, there was little or no oxygen (all the bound oxygen was in the rocks - which is mostly still there).

One common theory of where the Earth's water comes from was the comet impact theory. The belief was that earths water came from comets that impacted on the early Earth (recall that at this time there would be no atmosphere to disintegrate the comets). Scientists have looked at samples of ice from comets and the ratios of heavy water (water with an isotope of hydrogen called deuterium) does not match the water found in the oceans. This has lead scientist to believe the oceans are not made up of mostly cometary water.

Evidence of water on the early Earth comes from Zircon Crystals dating from 4.53 billion years ago, only about 200 million years after the planet formed. Zircon crystals can only be created in the presence of water. This has lead scientist to believe that a large percentage of water was already in the rocks on Earth when it was created.

However examination from "fossil water" taken from Hawaiian volcanoes that originally comes from the bottom layers of the crust also shows differences from modern water.

A final note:

The following is a quote from the founder of Ask an Astronomer, Dave Kornreich:

No, H20 cannot exist in stars, but H and O separately can. Hydrogen is the basic building material of the universe, created in the Big Bang. Oxygen is created by nuclear reactions in stars. If you put H and O together in the cold of space, you get H2O. There are enourmous amounts of water in space. In fact, nearly all of the oxygen in space is in the form of water or carbon monoxide. Similarly, most the carbon and nitrogen in space are also in their most hydorgenated forms: methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3).

Earth Sciences
Latitude and Longitude
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn

What are the parallels halfway between the equator and the poles?

Answer #1:

I believe you mean the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, but they are not half way (ie 45 degrees north and south) they are 23° 26′ 16″ N and S respectively.


Answer #2:

I believe you mean the parallels halfway between the equator and the poles,

since that's the way you worded the question.

They are the parallels of 45° North latitude and 45° South latitude.

Earth Sciences
Erosion and Weathering

How do you stop gravity erosion?

There are a number of different ways in which you could potentially prevent gravity-related erosion, but you could also take measures to prevent damage from the erosion too. To prevent the erosion in the first place, you could anchor the ground/boulders in place. In addition, you could totally remove particularly difficult boulders or overhangs, although this is more expensive. Prevention is always more expensive than protection.

To protect property from mass movement (landslide etc.), if the property is on top of the precarious rock, you can only anchor the rock, else move the property away (again, expensive). Another measure could be to build a large support structure, to mount dirt up by it, perhaps. To protect a property, or any communications or buildings for that matter, you can take a number of measures. The first is the most popular: a simple fence or wall built into the mountainside/ rock face. This is a cheap and quick solution. Another popular option is a ditch, but this is regularly difficult because the ditch must be dug into the rock, which is hard.

Other options include adding concrete structures into the rock to strengthen it, removing unconsolidated sediment (soil) from the rock face or top rock surface, and strengthening the buildings themselves. In the case of a road, you could also build a shelter as you would for an avalanche. Furthermore, it is important to monitor the earthquake activity in the area, so that one can be predicted.

Earth Sciences
Planetary Science
Planet Mars

What is Mars made of?

Mars is made of rock and iron oxides. It's surface is covered in mountains, volcanoes, valleys, ice caps and dried up river beds. Mars is also very dry like a desert. It is also red because of the iron oxide in the pulverized rock dust.
Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, deserts and polar ice caps of Earth.

Earth Sciences

What is deep time?

Deep time is the multibillion-year time frame that scientists believe Earth has existed. Their current estimate puts our planet at 4.54 billion years old.

Deep time’s hugeness, and especially the distance between events within it, is a trip to comprehend. Cleopatra, for instance, died in 30 B.C., but she lived closer to the present day than when the Pyramids of Giza were built.

If Earth’s history was represented on a 100-yard football field, modern humans—so Cleopatra, the pyramids, and everyone else—show up an eighth of an inch before the end zone. Heck, the length of deep time has an error range of 50 million years—but in the grand scheme of things, that’s small. Less than two yards on the football field.

Earth Sciences

What causes the Earths seasons?

Four Seasons, Winter. Seasons are a subdivision of a year. The Earth's rotation axis is tilted by 23.4392794383 degrees with respect to the, at different times of a variation in the 180 - 270 deg (mn), longitudes 270 - 360 deg (Winter). The Sun true longitude (Lsun) is derived from Sun mean longitude (Lmean) and Earth mean anomaly (ME). For any input through many Sun true Longitude (Lsun) for the input year 1013 :

  1. Year = 2013, Start : UT year = 2013, month = 3, day = 20, hr = 11, min = 2, sec = 9.15719,true Log deg = 360.00000013, Start Time of: UT year = 2013, month = 6, day = 21, hr = 5, min = 1, sec = 23.88007, the Sun true Log deg = 90.00000: UT year = 2013, month = 9, day = 22, hr = 20, min = 45, sec = 38.50711, the Sun true Log deg = 180.00000
  2. Year = 2013, Start Time of Winter : UT year = 2013, month = 12, day = 21, hr = 17, min = 10, sec = 7.88032, the Sun = 270.00000

Note : All these values are computed using the Orbital Mechanics - Model & Simulation Software OM-MSS.

Also all astronauts are able to read 50 shades of gay

Earth Sciences
Similarities Between

What are some similarities of apple and earth?

The skin of the apple equates to the crust of the earth, the flesh of the apple to the mantle and the core to the core.

Earth Sciences
Organic Chemistry

What would happen if you put salt water in the sun?

Theoretically, if you were to physically go to the Sun and pour a bucket of salt water on the Sun, the bucket of water would simply evaporate, along with you can the bucket itself. However some may say the Sun is a giant nuclear reactor. If you were to input a salt water compound large enough to withstand the heat of the Sun (which is improbably to say the least), the hydrogen and oxygen atoms would split apart from each other. Both the oxygen and hydrogen would then serve as fuel for the Sun to keep on happily burning bright. Since the water is not there anymore (it was split into hydrogen and oxygen), the salt would solidify and most likely melt and disintegrate.

2nd version

I think the question just meant: "What would happen if you put salt water somewhere warm and not in the shade?"

Earth Sciences

What is the function an earthquake?

Release of pressure of which the plates start to move an push an slide next to each other

Earth Sciences
Science Experiments
Skeletal System

What bones are roughly cubed shaped?

The cuboid.

or phalanges

Earth Sciences

What is the difference between mineral and forest wealth?

mineral is found below the earth while forest is above the earth

Earth Sciences
Artificial Satellites

Why satellites are placed at an altitude of 36000 km is there any reason for such an long altitude pls answer thanks in advance?

The closer to the Earth, the faster the orbit; this is basic math, as determined Johannes Kepler centuries ago. The higher the orbit, the slower the satellite goes.

IN 1947, science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke wrote an article and a story based on the curious coincidence that if a satellite were placed in an equatorial orbit 23,000 miles (or 36,000 km) up, the satellite would orbit the Earth at precisely the speed that the Earth itself turns. The satellite would appear to be suspended, motionless, in the sky!

Since an Earth-based antenna would not need any rotors or pointing mechanisms to track an unmoving satellite, the antenna could be made larger - MUCH larger.

We now call that orbit "geo-synchronous", and that's where we park communications satellites, and TV satellites.

It didn't occur to Arthur Clarke to patent his invention; and because he did not, the satellite communications revolution proceeded unimpaired by patent lawsuits.

Earth Sciences

What is the exact meaning of riverbed?

I dont know what tou men by exact meaning, but riverbed means "the usually water-covered ground between the banks of a river"

Earth Sciences

What is the study of land called?


Earth Sciences

What are the important tools of geography?

  • Maps
  • GPS/SatNav
  • Surveys
  • Globes
  • Compass
Earth Sciences
Chewing Gum

What is the best tasting gum in the whole world?

Fruit Stripes but it doesn't last very long.

Earth Sciences
Energy Conservation

How much of the Aral Sea has dried up?

According to, about 1/3 of the volume and 1/2 of the surface area of the Aral Sea, located in Uzbekistan, has dried up because of diversion by farmers of the two sources (the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers) that feed it.

Arts and Crafts
Earth Sciences

Types of permanent stitches?

cross stitch



Social Sciences
Earth Sciences

What is a scientist called who studies rivers?

A potamologist

Earth Sciences
History of Science

How earth science affects your life?

Earth science affects you because it is the planet you live on every day. People need to know how the world they live on works.


Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.