Hydrology

Hydrology studies the movement and distribution of water across planets.

1,398 Questions
Hydrology

What does hydrology examine?

Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution and quality of water. Hydrologists can help aid environmental engineering, policy and planning.

It is the study of water on and within the land (river flows, aquifers, etc.)

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The Moon
Ocean Tides
Hydrology

What is the main cause of tides on the earth?

Tides are differences in gravitational pull between two points of a body. Tidal effects on earth are caused by lunar gravity and, to a much lesser extent, solar gravity. The greatest effect of tidal forces are on water levels along ocean coast lines. The ebb and flow of this water is also known as a tide. Other types of water displacements are caused by wind, earthquakes, etc.

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Astronomy
The Moon
Ocean Tides
Hydrology

How do the moon and sun affect the ocean tides on earth?

The very quick and dirty answer: Our moon plays a major role in the tides of the earth's oceans because the earth and moon are attracted to each other gravitationally.

A little more detail: The earth-moon system has a center of gravity, called the Barycenter. This is a point located within the body of the earth, and which moves in such a way that it is always in line with the earth's center and the moon's center. The moon's gravity pulls on the oceans that are right below the moon, and the moon's gravity is a little weaker on the other side of the earth. At the same time, the earth is orbiting the Barycenter (this would be observed as a wobble in earth's orbit if observed from far enough away), causing a bit of a 'push back' on the oceans on the other side.

A:It's not the moon's gravity alone, but the interaction of the earth and moon. One influence is the fact that the earth-moon system orbits around the common center of gravity of earth-moon. This point is called the barycenter, and it is within the body of the earth since earth's mass is considerably larger than the moon's mass. As the earth wobbles around the barycenter, it tends to push the water out from behind the barycenter. At the same time, the gravitational attraction of the moon is stronger on the water that is moon-side than it is on the water on the opposite side of earth. So there is a high tide bulge on two opposite sides of the earth at once, and of course then there are two low tide areas at roughly 90 degree angles to the high tides. A:Tidal forces are caused by the differential pull of gravity on a planetary body or moon.

Consider the Earth-moon system. The Earth and moon are orbiting around their common center of mass, which is a point that lies somewhere inside the Earth since the Earth is so much more massive than the moon. So since we are in orbit around this center of gravity, we don't feel the moon's gravitational force, much like how astronauts in orbit don't feel the gravitational force of the Earth, even though it is pulling on them all the same.

However, because the Earth is a large body, the pull of the moon is stronger on the side of the earth facing the moon and weaker on the opposing side. The pull of the moon at the center of the Earth falls in the middle. The effect of this differential pull is that the water on the near side wants to pull away from the Earth, and the Earth wants to pull away from the water on the far side. This net effect is a force that tends to stretch the earth and oceans, creates two tidal bulges, hence two high tides per day and two tides per day. The water of course is much more deformable than the Earth itself, so it is the oceans we see forming the tidal bulges. Low tide occurs at the location on the earth at right angles to the Earth - moon line, and high tide occurs along the Earth-moon line.

For more information on this, please see the links below:

A:But it's not just the force of gravity (the sun's force is much greater than the moon's) but the DIFFERENCE between the force of gravity on the nearer side of the Earth as compared to the farther side.

As the moon passes over the Earth, since it has its own gravitational pull, it slightly lessens the force of the gravity on the Earth. The lessened gravity when the moon is over the oceans causes the ocean's surface to rise, so the tide goes in.

A:The gravity of the moon pulls on the oceans of the Earth, to help create the tides.
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Astronomy
The Moon
Ocean Tides
Hydrology

How does the moon affect the ocean tides on earth?

There is a gravitational pull that exists between the planetarial masses of the earth, moon sun respectively.

The stronger force exists between earth and moon as far as tides are concerned.

As the earth and moon orbit each other on a daily basis a gravitational pull is exerted on a section of ocean mass on the side closest of the earth to the orbiting moon.

This results in a section of rotating ocean mass that imparts a translation force component to water at right angles to the gravitational force on the surface of the earth.

The sun kicks in force wise when a monthly alignment of the earth moon and sun takes place. This is the point where a king tide occurs.

The other significant force influencing tides is that imparted by the wind ond the ocean surface.

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Hydrology

What is found in the Great Artesian Basin and what is it used for?

Artesian water is found in the basin. Although it is too salty for humans to drink, animals and livestock can drink it. It can also be used for watering crops, and thus it is a very important source of water for people living in the outback. Bores are sunk to reach the water and licenses are required for this. The water is then drawn up, sometimes hundreds of feet, by windmills.
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The Moon
Hydrology

How would tides on earth be different if the moon revolved around earth in 15 days instead of 30 days?

If the moon moved around the earth faster, while the earth maintained the same rotational speed, the period between spring and neap tides would be less.

697071
Environmental Issues
Earth Sciences
Dead Sea
Hydrology

Where is most of the fresh water on earth found?

Most of the earth's fresh water is stored as ice in the Arctic and Antarctic regions of the globe. About 1.7% of the earth's entire water supply exists in icecaps.

Other useful statistics:

Approx. 97.5% of the earth's water is stored in the ocean and is not usable because it is saline.

The remaining 2.5% is freshwater:

1.7% is found in ice caps.

0.7% is found as groundwater.

0.02% is found in lakes, streams, rivers, etc.

0.001% is found in the atmosphere.

0.001% is found as soil moisture.

0.0001% is found in biological organisms.

Keep in mind that statistics vary from source to source, but this provides a general idea of the order of magnitude difference between volumes of water stored on earth.

Polar ice (about 75%)

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Hydrology

Why don't wells overflow?

There are many kinds of wells. When they overflow they are called artesian wells or springs. A well is a man made thing. It is nothing more than a hole in the earth to gain access to fresh groundwater. Old wells were dug by hand till water was found and then the walls were shored up with local stones to keep the well from collapsing. Then a cover was built around the top of the well ands a roof was then added. This kept people from falling in as well as keeping debris from falling or blown in by the wind. A manual lever, rope and bucket fishished the thing. Now, the answer is gravity. Water seeps to its lowest point in the ground and then flows to the sea. Also known as underground rivers, they can be anywhere from 5 feet deep to over 1000 feet deep. Ground water levels can fluctuate with the amount of rainfall for an area. Wells can dry up and also the ground water table can rise, but not enough to make it to ground level. When water seeps all the way to the hot magma underground, it turns to steam and geysers and warm springs appear on the surface. Yellowstone national park's "Old Faithful" and Warm Springs, Georgia are two examples of this. We get sinkholes because the ground that we walk on dialy "floats" on a layer of saturated soil which water flows through, although very slowly and when it dries up it is unable to support the layer(s) above it. During earthquakes this layer gets shook up and liquifaction occurs also unable to support the layer(s) above it and objects like buildings and bridges sink into what seems to be solid earth. Hope this helps.

596061
Earth Sciences
The Moon
Ocean Tides
Hydrology

What causes tides on earth?

Tides are caused by "tidal forces" (named so after the tides) from the Moon. The "tidal forces" refer to the fact that one side of Earth - the side that is closest to the moon - is attracted stronger by the moon than the opposite side.

575859
Astronomy
Earth Sciences
The Moon
Ocean Tides
Hydrology

What causes the tides on the Earth?

The Moon's gravitational pull on the Earth, and to a lesser degree the Sun's gravity as well. The Sun's gravity force is much weaker on Earth's surface than the Moon's gravity because of its greater distance.

While the Moon creates the overall change in the level of the oceans, each location will have slightly different tides because of sea depths, topography, and other factors.

Also, see the related questions linked below.

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Fluid Dynamics
Glaciers
Hydrology

Can an iceberg sink?

no. it melts

An iceberg will float as long as it is in water. If you could put an iceberg in a liquid less dense than ice, the iceberg would sink.

414243
Lakes and Rivers
Oceans and Seas
Water Pollution
Hydrology

What is the total volume of fresh water on earth in volume?

The volume of all fresh water on Earth would be about 8 to 10 million cubic miles. That sounds like a lot except that 2/3 of that is frozen into glaciers and the ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica.

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Estimates vary on the percent of the Earth's water that is fresh, but it is only about 2.5 to 3% of the Earth's water. Most of this fresh water is frozen in the ice caps (Greenland and Antarctica) and in glaciers.

NASA says Earth's total water content is about 1.39 billion cubic kilometers (331 million cubic miles) and that 2.5% of that is fresh water. (And 68.9% of it is locked up in glaciers) The US Geological Survey says that up to 3% of the world's water is fresh.

(see related link)

131415
Science
Earth Sciences
Seasons
Ocean Tides
Hydrology

What are the factors that brought about the occurrence of tides on earth?

the distance of the moon from the earth

the total gravity of the moon

the amount of water in the tide.....

and ect

by J.P.A

373839
Hydrology

What is percolation in hydrology?

Percolation is basically the movement of water as it infiltrates the permeable soil in the ground.

313233
Science
Astronomy
Hydrology

What would happen to tides if Earth stopped rotating?

We wouldn't care, because the amount of energy it would take to stop the Earth from spinning would destroy the planet anyway.

Eventually, billions of years from now, IF the Earth and Moon survive the expansion of the Sun into a red giant, the Earth's rotation will slow down and the Earth will become tidally locked like the Moon is. The Earth will spin at the same speed that the Moon orbits, and the Moon will appear to be suspended in the sky. When that happens, there will no longer be any tides.

Yes, but the Earth would still be rotating, very slowly, relative to the distant stars. The estimate I've seen is that the length of the Earth's rotation period then would be about 47 times the length of our present Earth day. If it were possible for the Earth to stop rotating altogether, there would technically be some tides again, but that's a bit pedantic.

Also, there would still be some very small effects because of the Sun.

272829
Environmental Issues
Earth Sciences
Oceanography
Hydrology

What percentage of all the water on Earth is fresh water?

About 3 percent (2.75%) of the total water on Earth is fresh water, and as much as 75% of that is locked up as ice in glaciers and polar caps. Most of the rest is groundwater or water vapor in the air. Thank you!

192021
Astronomy
Earth Sciences
The Moon
Hydrology

Do tides control the way the earth spins?

Yes, the tides gradually slow Earth's rotation.

Yes, the tides gradually slow Earth's rotation.

Yes, the tides gradually slow Earth's rotation.

Yes, the tides gradually slow Earth's rotation.

789
Earth Sciences
Hydrology

Do tides help the earth?

Yes, through erosion. Yes. They wash things up to the shore and circulate the dead matter in the ocean. They are also fun to surf and play on.

272829
Planetary Science
Planet Earth
Hydrology

Do any other planets other than earth have water?

Water exists on all of the planets of the solar system, but in varying quantities and almost never in liquid form. The planets are either too hot or too cold for that.

Venus likely has the least water. The oxygen there has combined to form carbon dioxide and the hydrogen has been lost to space. There is likely only a tiny trace of water vapor there. Mercury, the other hot planet, has ice deep in craters near its poles, brought there by crashing comets. On Mars, in comets, on frigid plutoids and moons, and especially in Saturn's rings, there is plenty of water ice. The only location that may have liquid water is the Jupiter moon Europa, where it would be in an underground ocean buried under several kilometers of thick surface ice.

252627
Planetary Science
Hydrology

What effect do the planets have on Earth tides?

Planets are all made of titanium. That later comes into play by reflecting the sun, and also magnetically pulling earth toward them. Scientist think that eventually, the Earth will become the moon of another planet.

252627
Chemistry
Environmental Issues
Hydrology

How the oceans which are salty in nature are the source of fresh water on earth?

Oceans are not the source of fresh water on Earth. Drinking water primarily comes from 4 sources. Lakes, rivers, groundwater, and glaciers. (Of course, all of it is purified before it reaches you.)

ADDED: The oceans are fundamentally the source, because the water falling as rain and snow has been evaporated from the sea, and the evaporation leaves the salt behind.

345
Planetary Science
The Moon
Gravity
Hydrology

Why would there be no tides on a flat earth?

That is not true: On a flat earth, if the moon was not overhead, it would pull the water towards it and so cause a tide. It is a bit like tides in lakes: many are small enough not to be overly affected by fact that the earth is not flat.

345
Astronomy
Hydrology

What are the effects of a supernova on earth tides?

I don't think it should have any effect. The tides are caused by nearby objects, especially the Moon and the Sun. The tidal forces are (approximately) inversely proportional to the thirdpower of the distance, so although the Sun attracts us stronger than the Moon, the Moon has a greater influence on the tides. A far-away object should have no noticeable effect on the tides.

I don't think it should have any effect. The tides are caused by nearby objects, especially the Moon and the Sun. The tidal forces are (approximately) inversely proportional to the thirdpower of the distance, so although the Sun attracts us stronger than the Moon, the Moon has a greater influence on the tides. A far-away object should have no noticeable effect on the tides.

I don't think it should have any effect. The tides are caused by nearby objects, especially the Moon and the Sun. The tidal forces are (approximately) inversely proportional to the thirdpower of the distance, so although the Sun attracts us stronger than the Moon, the Moon has a greater influence on the tides. A far-away object should have no noticeable effect on the tides.

I don't think it should have any effect. The tides are caused by nearby objects, especially the Moon and the Sun. The tidal forces are (approximately) inversely proportional to the thirdpower of the distance, so although the Sun attracts us stronger than the Moon, the Moon has a greater influence on the tides. A far-away object should have no noticeable effect on the tides.

345
Astronomy
Seasons
The Moon
Hydrology

How does the Sun the Earth and the Moon make tides?

The tides are caused by the fact that the Moon (and, to a lesser degree, the Sun) attracts one side of the Earth - the side that is closer to the Moon - stronger, thus "stretching" the Earth - and especially the water, which moves more easily.

The tides are caused by the fact that the Moon (and, to a lesser degree, the Sun) attracts one side of the Earth - the side that is closer to the Moon - stronger, thus "stretching" the Earth - and especially the water, which moves more easily.

The tides are caused by the fact that the Moon (and, to a lesser degree, the Sun) attracts one side of the Earth - the side that is closer to the Moon - stronger, thus "stretching" the Earth - and especially the water, which moves more easily.

The tides are caused by the fact that the Moon (and, to a lesser degree, the Sun) attracts one side of the Earth - the side that is closer to the Moon - stronger, thus "stretching" the Earth - and especially the water, which moves more easily.

345
Science
Astronomy
Planetary Science
Hydrology

The tides on Earth are caused by the gravitational pull of the?

Moon, and to a lesser extent, the sun.

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