The study of human social behavior, especially the study of the origins, organization, institutions, and development of human society.

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Is it possible to contaminate a subculture?

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By improperly handling of the bacteria, or by doing any or all steps of the aseptic technique incorrectly.

How do you get hired as a counselor with no experience and only a BA in sociology?

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Asked by TiffH2

It depends on what type of counselor. Typically, most counselors are required to have a minimum of a master's degree while others a doctorate. Read the below carefully and follow through on the link provided below this answer box.

The following is by and according to the U.S. Department of Labor and particular to the education and training required for a counselor. Education and training requirements for counselors are often very detailed and vary by State and specialty. Prospective counselors should check with State and local governments, employers, and national voluntary certification organizations to determine which requirements apply. Education and training. Education requirements vary based on occupational specialty and State licensure and certification requirements. A master's degree is usually required to be licensed as a counselor. Some States require counselors in public employment to have a master's degree; others accept a bachelor's degree with appropriate counseling courses. Counselor education programs in colleges and universities are often found in departments of education or psychology. Fields of study include college student affairs, elementary or secondary school counseling, education, gerontological counseling, marriage and family therapy, substance abuse counseling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, clinical mental health counseling, career counseling, and related fields. Courses are often grouped into eight core areas: human growth and development, social and cultural diversity, relationships, group work, career development, assessment, research and program evaluation, and professional identity. In an accredited master's degree program, 48 to 60 semester hours of graduate study, including a period of supervised clinical experience in counseling, are required. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Others may offer time off or tuition assistance to complete a graduate degree. Often counselors must participate in graduate studies, workshops, and personal studies to maintain their certificates and licenses. Licensure. Licensure requirements differ greatly by State, occupational specialty, and work setting. Many States require school counselors to hold a State school counseling certification and to have completed at least some graduate course work; most require the completion of a master's degree. Some States require school counselors to be licensed, which generally requires continuing education credits. Some States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certificates and to have had some teaching experience. For counselors based outside of schools, 49 States and the District of Columbia have some form of counselor licensure that governs the practice of counseling. Requirements typically include the completion of a master's degree in counseling, the accumulation of 2 years or 3,000 hours of supervised clinical experience beyond the master's degree level, the passage of a State-recognized exam, adherence to ethical codes and standards, and the completion of annual continuing education requirements. However, counselors working in certain settings or in a particular specialty may face different licensure requirements. For example, a career counselor working in private practice may need a license, but a counselor working for a college career center may not. In addition, substance abuse and behavior disorder counselors are generally governed by a different State agency or board than other counselors. The criteria for their licensure vary greatly and in some cases, these counselors may only need a high school diploma and certification. Those interested in entering the field must research State and specialty requirements to determine what qualifications they must have. Other qualifications. People interested in counseling should have a strong desire to help others and should be able to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Counselors must follow the code of ethics associated with their respective certifications and licenses. Counselors must possess high physical and emotional energy to handle the array of problems that they address. Dealing daily with these problems can cause stress. Certification and advancement. Some counselors elect to be certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors, Inc., which grants a general practice credential of National Certified Counselor. To be certified, a counselor must hold a master's degree with a concentration in counseling from a regionally accredited college or university; have at least 2 years of supervised field experience in a counseling setting (graduates from counselor education programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs are exempted); provide two professional endorsements, one of which must be from a recent supervisor; and must have a passing score on the board's examination. This national certification is voluntary and is distinct from State licensing. However, in some States, those who pass the national exam are exempted from taking a State certification exam. The board also offers specialty certifications in school, clinical mental health, and addiction counseling. These specialty certifications require passage of a supplemental exam. To maintain their certifications, counselors retake and pass the exam or complete 100 credit hours of acceptable continuing education every 5 years. The Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification offers voluntary national certification for rehabilitation counselors. Many State and local governments and other employers require rehabilitation counselors to have this certification. To become certified, rehabilitation counselors usually must graduate from an accredited educational program, complete an internship, and pass a written examination. Certification requirements vary, however, according to an applicant's educational history. Employment experience, for example, is required for those with a counseling degree in a specialty other than rehabilitation. To maintain their certification, counselors must successfully retake the certification exam or complete 100 credit hours of acceptable continuing education every 5 years. Other counseling organizations also offer certification in particular counseling specialties. Usually, becoming certified is voluntary, but having certification may enhance job prospects. Prospects for advancement vary by counseling field. School counselors can become directors or supervisors of counseling, guidance, or pupil personnel services; or, usually with further graduate education, become counselor educators, counseling psychologists, or school administrators. (psychologists and education administrators are covered elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some counselors choose to work for a State's department of education. Some marriage and family therapists, especially those with doctorates in family therapy, become supervisors, teachers, researchers, or advanced clinicians in the discipline. Counselors may also become supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some counselors move into research, consulting, or college teaching or go into private or group practice. Some may choose to pursue a doctoral degree to improve their chances for advancement. For the source and more detailed information concerning your request, click on the related links section (U.S. Department of Labor) indicated below this answer box.

What is structural conflict?

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Asked by Wiki User

Structural conflict theory states that conflicts in society happen because of claims for the same resource. As a results, various structured groups fight against one another.

'are you a good person' what makes someone a good person?

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Asked by Wiki User

Your question implies a differentiation between that which is good and something else which is bad or less than good. As it should be. Goodness is not relative. There are hosts of people who 'thought' they were doing good or being good when in fact, they were acting or believing badly. Goodness brings forth positivity, not negativity. Goodness brings forth light, not darkness. A good person is one who tries to make the world a better place based upon a valid and reasonable philosphical foundation. Notice the term "valid" and "reasonable". There is no moral equivalency between good and bad. A terrorist and a revolutionary are not flip sides of the same coin. For example, a good person does not murder, or steal, or covet, or make idols. These are negative. A good person creates positive. To be clear, that little voice in your head (that so many falsely rely on to tell them what is good and what is bad), is often unreliable. Feelings too are often unreliable. Good people do what is right regardless of what they"feel like" doing and despite social aceptance of badness.

Why do you apply perfume to a pulse point?

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Your body releases more heat at this points, making the essence of your cologne/perfume interact with your pheromones.

If you apply your fragance on your clothes, it will fade quickly and it could also damage them. *I got this from yahoo answers.

How do you know if a perfume is original?

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Asked by Wiki User

- Color should be even

- Finishing of bottle must be perfect

- There shouldn't be any bubbles in the perfume

- Fragrance would be long lasting

- Fragrance sprayed won't show any speck

Should narcissists leave their families?

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On the contrary, most families leave the narcissist.

What are some examples of cultural beliefs?

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Here are some cultural beliefs:

  • Some cultures believe that women are not as good as men
  • Some cultures believe that people are born in a certain caste and can never escape that
  • Some cultures believe that hard work will allow you to do whatever you want to do
  • Some cultures believe that white is the color for weddings; others think it is for funerals

What were the roles of the women in Colonial Maryland and Virginia?

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Asked by Wiki User

Women were entirely responsible for cooking and cleaning in colonial Maryland. Raising the children was also their responsibility and only the rich had help from servants.

What is life expectancy for men in Zimbabwe?

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Asked by SibandaS

The 2009 life expectancy of Zimbabwe is 39 years and 3 months.

How many homeless charities are in London?

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Asked by Wiki User

there are 9,000 services to help homeless people in Britain

Why is racism still taken place?

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Asked by Wiki User

A lack of education and people's ignorance. It sounds ridiculous to say that the situation is getting better, when it should not be an issue in the first place. I do believe , however, that people are getting on with their lives and ignoring it and I think that is the way to deal with it. Why should anyone care what a few ignorant people think. Pity them.


Also -

Racism will never end, Some of the biggest racists today were victims of racism or descendants of victims. Some have turned racism into an industry. It is in their interests to keep racism alive.

What is the social structure of Africa?

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Asked by Wiki User

Majority of Africa are still dealing with the effects of racial inequality and economic suppression. The White majority own most of the land previously occupied by blacks, and the White population control politics leaving many Blacks powerless.

Who is Ahmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza?

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Asked by Wiki User

Ahmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza

Ahmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza, born 27 December 1984 in Cairo, is an Egyptian composer/multimedia performance artist and writer in philosophy and sociology and a political activist.

Ahmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza hails from the aristocratic Abaza Family and uses the name Ahmed Tarek Ola-abaza for musical work and visual performances.

The Auckland Museum describes him as:

"Born in Cairo, Christchurch-based Ahmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza was one of the New Zealand Egyptian voices we heard during the uprising who helped explain the impact the rebellion against Mubarak was having on ordinary Egyptians both here and in their homeland.

A writer, sociology and philosophy researcher with a double major in Political Science and Sociology, his commentary has been featured in the New Zealand Herald, Stuff and on Radio New Zealand and TVNZ. A member of the Egyptian Association of Canterbury, he says: "Without a secure Egypt, there is little hope for a healthy and secure Middle East or North Africa."

WorkAhmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza participated in the revolutionary protests against Egypt's ruling military council, he recounts in an essay on

"Why were numerous soldiers stationed at two points nearby standing silent as a man shot at protesters from above at the cabinet incident (December 2011) and at my head, at one point with a bullet flying through my hair? I impulsively asked one soldier who guarded the American embassy nearby, "Hey do you know who is shooting above there?"


I said goodbye and left to see the injured at the makeshift hospital, having to run rapidly to escape the possibility of being shot at and hearing directly from the doctor that live bullets have been used, having already seen a sample and recorded the image."

His work includes strong criticism of Egypt's transitional government. He writes in 'Calling SCAF to Account' about Egypt's military rulers:

"The SCAF is the most evil entity in the Egyptian socio-political game today. This is not just because their soldiers or other security personnel for which they are responsible, have killed, tortured or mistreated people, which is well-attested to, even during the 2011 initial uprising (as an Amnesty International report documents). It is not just because they supervise murder in their capacity as administrators of the country; but let us assume again some innocence: are they not at the very least the ones responsible for ensuring security and protecting lives? There is what is called gross negligence or fault by omission."

In a 2011 interview with Bikyamasr he states:

"Again, my position is uncompromising. Egypt has in fact been a military-police state since the coup targeting King Farouk I. All Heads of State since then have been military men and the military establishment has grown to huge proportions and has an unduly privileged status in society. A military must be just as accountable and transparent as any government service. To emphasise, the military is a service and its institutions servants to the citizens."

He writes on Muslim-Christian relations in Egypt attacking Islamic terrorism using Islamic teachings in 'Bombing Shames All':

"Attempting wan refuge under the name Islam - what account did the killers take of the Prophet Mohammed's own handwritten Charter of Privileges, still intact in Egypt? It explicitly commands binding protections for Christians: Muslims are to protect churches from damage, not then and not now, but "until the Last Day (the end of time)".

In Islam, the first word the Koran reveals is the imperative "read" and "recite" (iqra). And most prominent names for God in it are Ar-Rahman and Ar- Rahim (roughly, The Compassionate/Beneficent and The Merciful, respectively).

How did the killers act through faith towards such words? And where and how were Islam's terms read and used by the killers through their frames of reference?"

He again addresses the issue of Christian rights in Egypt in 'I will vote for the best of the worst':

"The situation of Egyptian Christians is particularly serious as they form a very large minority. The Egyptian Church has consistently had a patriotic internal culture. But dissatisfaction with restrictive laws, forced exposure to Islamic scripture in the Arabic school curriculum, absence of representation in high political and military positions and many other problems exist for the community. And let us not forget the violent attacks on churches.

I had done a pilot survey of the Egyptian community in Christchurch, New Zealand a number of years ago. The results of the research project confirmed that the Muslim and Christian communities are sharply separated with interaction largely limited to some of the younger members of both communities. The local church openly and on record refused to support their congregation joining with the Muslim community in a united Egyptian Association of Canterbury. From this, we can see that the grievances are very strong but also that both sides misunderstand each other. Only one Muslim respondent to the survey agreed that discrimination against Christians existed at all in Egypt compared to every single Christian respondent agreeing that it exists and with some giving examples.

I described it at the time as a problem of self-definition: many Muslims consider themselves the 'tolerant-majority' and find it hard to recognize the discrimination as they do not themselves experience it. Many Christians define themselves as the 'oppressed-minority' and find it frustrating and unacceptable that their grievances are not given due consideration. A process of critically reflecting on yourself and the groups you feel you belong to must start in order to then understand the other in front of you. Shared group self-definitions must expand and progress in line with interaction with the other."

About his music he states in another interview with Mashareeb:

"Egypt is my everlasting love and when I was 14 in 1999 Christchurch I was especially homesick and a bit of an Egyptomaniac. The millennium celebrations in Egypt were to be marked by a concert called 'The Twelve Dreams of the Sun' by Jean Michel Jarre. I followed the news about this obsessively, not because of the music but because it was the Egyptian celebration. Eventually I heard Oxygene 9 and the synthesizer textures and sound design on this piece impressed me. I had only heard standard pop music so far and some classical and Arabic music. This ignited my love for music in general not just electronic music. I later heard pieces of Jarre's which evoked memories of my Egyptian childhood as his music was used on some TV and radio. Then I began to compose when I was 15 as this interest developed more strongly and I discovered many other artists."

In his capacity as a sociologist and translator he provided live commentary to New Zealand TV viewers on Egypt's former president Mubarak's last speech in 2011. He was interviewed many time sin New Zealand during the revolution.

Ahmed Tarek Bahgat Abaza lives between Egypt and New Zealand.

Read more: Ahmed_Tarek_Bahgat_Abaza

What social class does Winston occupy in the book 1984?

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Asked by Wiki User

George Orwell depicts the relationship between the three classes in the society of Oceania in a very doom and gloom manner. The Inner Party is a small-ish group of people that rules with an iron fist more totally than any communist leader or dictator that has ever existed in the present or past. They make up the upper class of Oceania. The outer party is like the middle class today, they do all the dirty work of the Inner Party. The main character in 1984 had a was a member of the outer party and worked to cover up errors made by the Party and put in lies instead. The lowest class is called the Proles. They are viewed as nothing more but simpleminded animals who have no more value than a beef cow or any other animal that can be sold commercially.

Max Weber contribution in management?

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He looked for methods to eliminate managerial inconsistencies that contributed to ineffectiveness, and his solution was a set of principles for organizing' group effort through a bureaucratic organization.

What is the harmful effect of reality shows on society?

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Asked by Wiki User

The bad points of reality TV is some of he things in it like drugs violence and drinking. Some people look at it like this is America and the type of influence it has on people and how they should liv. It also shows just how ignorant people are when a camera is put in front of them

What are the lyrics to the emo kid song?

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Asked by Wiki User

a song by Adam and Andrew

the beginning

i am an emo kid non conformist as can be be.... etc

the emo song goes like this......

e is for emotional, ruins everybodys day

m is for miserable people

o is for on the dark side , cus we have fresh cookis, cookies. whoooo

go look on you tube type first line to hear it sung.

ah, yes the emo song..but I don't agree with the person above me. Its another song too, so basiclly theres this song orignally from SONGSTOWEARPANTS.COM and it makes fun of emo's :"so stop my breathing and slit my throght....i must be emo i don't jump around when I go to shows.....I must be emo" etc etc .

the emo song (the one making fun of emos) made me cry, because I'm emo, and that really hurt me.

so? go look on how to be emo on youtube it is funny, i cracked up, i couldn't breathe

Relation between culture and art?

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Asked by Wiki User

Culture affects art not just in the way it is created but also in the way people perceive it. And because of this, different people perceive the same art in different ways. Take for example, pop art. Some love it and some simply hate it.

Why do you think most hippies dropped out?

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Asked by Wiki User

I do not even know what a hippie is, well i do but,.....I like your photo :]

What was the hippies mission?

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Asked by Wiki User

the thing about hippies is thy came about because thwey saw problems with society and thought, weyd just thrw away evrythin and and start new wth a new mentality and a spiritual & natural bases. mission to bring new world order